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Delirium and Anxiety Outcomes Related to Visiting Policy Changes in the Intensive Care Unit During the COVID-19 Pandemic

 Bomi Kim  ;  Jaehwa Cho  ;  Jin Young Park  ;  Hesun Erin Kim  ;  Jooyoung Oh 
 FRONTIERS IN AGING NEUROSCIENCE, Vol.14 : 845105, 2022-03 
Journal Title
Issue Date
COVID-19 ; anxiety ; delirium ; family visit ; intensive care unit ; motor subtype
Objective: To evaluate the effect of intensive care unit (ICU) visit on the incidence of delirium, delirium subtype, and anxiety level in ICU patients.

Methods: Trained psychiatrists and nurses evaluated ICU patients for delirium, delirium subtypes, and anxiety. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to retrospectively analyze the data. Then, we compared the differences in the incidence of delirium, delirium subtypes, and anxiety level before and after the ICU visit ban. Logistic regression was conducted to identify the risk factors for delirium subtypes and high anxiety levels.

Results: After PSM, there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of delirium between the non-visiting and restrictive visiting groups (non-visiting 27.4% versus restrictive visiting 30.9%, p = 0.162). The proportion of hyperactive and mixed subtypes was higher in the non-visiting than in the restrictive visiting group (non-visiting 35.3 and 30.1% versus restrictive visiting 27.7 and 20.1%, p = 0.002). The anxiety level was higher in the non-visiting than in the restrictive visiting group (state-trait anxiety inventory score: non-visiting 53.46 ± 4.58 versus restrictive visiting 52.22 ± 6.50, p = 0.009). Patients who stayed in the ICU during the visit ban were more likely to have hyperactive (p = 0.005) and mixed subtype (p = 0.001) than those who did not. Moreover, patients who stayed in the ICU during the visit ban were more likely to experience high anxiety levels than those who did not (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Prohibition of ICU visits during COVID-19 pandemic did not affect the incidence of delirium during COVID-19 but could change the delirium subtype and raise anxiety level. Moreover, visiting prohibition was a risk factor for non-hypoactive delirium subtype and high anxiety levels. Therefore, ICU visits are important in dealing with delirium subtypes and anxiety in ICU patients.
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Psychiatry (정신과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Park, Jin Young(박진영) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5351-9549
Oh, Jooyoung(오주영) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6721-399X
Cho, Jaehwa(조재화) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3432-3997
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