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Increased risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in hyperthyroidism-related atrial fibrillation: A nationwide cohort study

 Kyu Kim  ;  Pil-Sung Yang  ;  Eunsun Jang  ;  Hee Tae Yu  ;  Tae-Hoon Kim  ;  Jae-Sun Uhm  ;  Jong-Youn Kim  ;  Jung-Hoon Sung  ;  Hui-Nam Pak  ;  Moon-Hyoung Lee  ;  Gregory Y H Lip  ;  Boyoung Joung 
 AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol.242 : 123-131, 2021-12 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Adolescent ; Adult ; Atrial Fibrillation* / etiology ; Cohort Studies ; Embolism* / epidemiology ; Humans ; Hyperthyroidism* / complications ; Ischemic Stroke* / epidemiology ; Risk Assessment
Background: We aimed to evaluate the long-term risk of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism of hyperthyroidism-related AF.

Methods: This retrospective population-based cohort study included records of 1,034,099 atrial fibrillation patients between 2005 and 2016 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. After exclusion, we identified 615,724 oral anticoagulation-naïve patients aged ≥18 years with new-onset non-valvular atrial fibrillation, of whom 20,773 had hyperthyroidism-related atrial fibrillation. After 3:1 propensity score matching, ischemic stroke and systemic embolism occurrences were compared between hyperthyroidism-related and non-hyperthyroidism-related ("nonthyroidal") atrial fibrillation patients.

Results: After exclusion, we identified 615,724 oral anticoagulation-naïve AF patients of whom 20,773 had hyperthyroidism-related AF. Median follow-up duration was 5.9 years. Hyperthyroidism-related AF patients had significantly higher risks of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism than nonthyroidal AF patients (1.83 vs 1.62 per 100-person year, hazard ratio[HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.07 to 1.19; P < 0.001). This risk was 36% higher in hyperthyroidism-related than in nonthyroidal AF patients within 1 year of atrial fibrillation diagnosis (3.65 vs 2.67 per 100-person year, HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.24 - 1.50; P < 0.001). This difference was also observed in the CHA2DS2-VASc score subgroup analysis. The risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism significantly decreased in patients treated for hyperthyroidism (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.70; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism-related AF patients have high risks of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism like nonthyroidal AF, especially when initially diagnosed. This risk is reduced by treating hyperthyroidism.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > BioMedical Science Institute (의생명과학부) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Kyu(김규)
Kim, Jong Youn(김종윤) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7040-8771
Kim, Tae-Hoon(김태훈) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4200-3456
Pak, Hui Nam(박희남) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3256-3620
Uhm, Jae Sun(엄재선) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1611-8172
Yu, Hee Tae(유희태) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6835-4759
Lee, Moon-Hyoung(이문형) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7268-0741
Jang, Eunsun(장은선) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6991-4765
Joung, Bo Young(정보영) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9036-7225
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