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Is There an Association Between Psychiatric Disorders and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis? A Large-database Study

 Soo-Bin Lee  ;  Hyun-Wook Chae  ;  Ji-Won Kwon  ;  Sahyun Sung  ;  Hwan-Mo Lee  ;  Seong-Hwan Moon  ;  Byung Ho Lee 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Adolescent ; Child ; Databases, Factual ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Mental Disorders / epidemiology* ; Mental Disorders / etiology* ; Prevalence ; Republic of Korea / epidemiology ; Retrospective Studies ; Scoliosis / psychology* ; Young Adult
Background: Children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) have reduced quality of life related to poor self-image, perhaps because of cosmetic concerns. However, there has not been a large-database epidemiologic study on the association between psychiatric disorders and scoliosis.

Questions/purposes: Using the Korean National Health Insurance database, we asked: (1) How common are psychiatric disorders among children with AIS? (2) After controlling for gender, age, insurance type, and residential district, are psychiatric disorders more common among children with AIS than among age-matched controls?

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted using sample datasets from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from 2012 to 2016, which is a 10% randomly extracted sample of total inpatients and outpatients each year. The mean number of total patients in each dataset was 1,047,603 ± 34,534. The mean number of children with AIS was 7409 ± 158 for each year. The age criteria was 10 to 19 years for the matching. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and behavioral disorders were selected as disorders possibly associated with AIS. We identified children with AIS who had any of the disorders above, and we obtained the prevalence of these disorders based on diagnostic codes. As an exploratory analysis, clinically meaningful variables were selected among the available codes in the dataset, and a univariable logistic regression test was performed for each variable. A multivariable logistic regression test with advanced variables was performed to identify the adjusted odds ratios of psychiatric disorders in children with AIS.

Results: The median (range) prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with AIS from 2012 to 2016 was 7% (6% to 7%). Compared with children who did not have AIS, and after controlling for gender, age, insurance type, and residential district, children with AIS were more likely to have psychiatric disorders in all 5 years. The adjusted ORs of psychiatric disorders in children with AIS compared with children who did not have AIS ranged from 1.47 to 1.74 (2012: OR 1.60 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.75]; p < 0.001; 2013: OR 1.73 [95% CI 1.58 to 1.89]; p < 0.001; 2014: OR 1.74 [95% CI 1.59 to 1.91]; p < 0.001; 2015: OR 1.71 [95% CI 1.56 to 1.88]; p < 0.001; 2016: OR 1.47 [95% CI 1.33 to 1.62]; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Considering the higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with AIS compared with children who did not have AIS, children with AIS and their parents should be counseled about the increased risk of deteriorating mental health of the patients, and surgeons should provide early referral to pediatric psychiatrists. Further studies should investigate the effect of the factors related to AIS, such as curve type, Cobb angle, and treatment modality.

Level of evidence: Level III, prognostic study.

Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons.
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Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery (정형외과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Pediatrics (소아과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kwon, Ji-Won(권지원) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4880-5310
Moon, Seong Hwan(문성환)
Lee, Byung Ho(이병호) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7235-4981
Lee, Hwan Mo(이환모) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5405-3832
Chae, Hyun Wook(채현욱) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5016-8539
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