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The effect of menopausal hormone therapy on gastrointestinal cancer risk and mortality in South Korea: a population-based cohort study

 Ji Hyung Nam  ;  Sung-In Jang  ;  Hyun Soo Park  ;  Jae Hak Kim  ;  Jun Kyu Lee  ;  Yun Jeong Lim  ;  Moon-Soo Koh  ;  Jin Ho Lee  ;  Sohee Park  ;  Chung Mo Nam  ;  Eun-Cheol Park 
 BMC GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol.21(1) : 440, 2021-11 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Cohort Studies ; Hormone Replacement Therapy* ; Humans ; Menopause ; Republic of Korea / epidemiology ; Stomach Neoplasms*
Cohort study ; Dose–response relationship ; Gastrointestinal cancer ; Menopausal hormone therapy ; Mortality
Background: The effect of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) on gastrointestinal (GI) cancers is controversial, and no research has been conducted in the East. This study investigates the association between MHT and GI cancer risks in South Korea.

Methods: A prescription-based cohort study was conducted using the NHIS Sample Cohort (2002-2013) of Korea. We used 1:5 propensity score matching, and 22,577 MHT users and 111,113 non-users were selected. Kaplan-Meier survival curves with log-rank tests were used. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Landmark analysis was used to determine dose-response relationship.

Results: The median follow-up was 79.6 of months. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed less frequent GI cancer diagnoses in MHT users compared to non-users (0.13 vs. 0.16 per 100,000 person-years). Menopausal hormone therapy was associated with decreased incidence of GI cancer (HR = 0.809, 95%CI = 0.691-0.946) and colorectal cancer (CRC) (HR = 0.757, 95%CI = 0.577-0.995). Gastric cancer (GC) incidence showed marginal significance (HR = 0.787, 95%CI = 0.605-1.023). The mortality from GI cancer was lower in MHT users than in non-users (HR = 0.737, 95%CI = 0.547-0.993). The relationship between MHT and GI cancer was stronger with increasing MHT dose in terms of both incidence (Ptrend = 0.0002) and mortality (Ptrend = 0.0064).

Conclusions: The association between MHT use and reduced risks of GI cancers was attributed to CRC and GC and showed a dose-response relationship in a population-based cohort study.
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Preventive Medicine (예방의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
4. Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) > Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Nam, Chung Mo(남정모) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0985-0928
Park, So Hee(박소희) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8513-5163
Park, Eun-Cheol(박은철) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2306-5398
Jang, Sung In(장성인) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0760-2878
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