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Sex Differences in Mitral Annular Calcification and the Clinical Implications

Authors
 Jiwon Seo  ;  Hyeonju Jeong  ;  Iksung Cho  ;  Geu-Ru Hong  ;  Jong-Won Ha  ;  Chi Young Shim 
Citation
 FRONTIERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE, Vol.8 : 736040, 2021-10 
Journal Title
FRONTIERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE
Issue Date
2021-10
Keywords
echocardiography ; mitral annular calcification (MAC) ; mitral stenosis (MS) ; mitral valve (MV) ; sex
Abstract
Background: Heterogeneous mechanisms may contribute to the occurrence of mitral annular calcification (MAC), however, little is known about the sex differences in MAC and the clinical implications of these differences. This study aimed to investigate clinical and imaging differences of MAC according to sex. Methods: In total, 537 patients (221 men) with MAC were identified by transthoracic echocardiography at a single center from January 2012 to June 2016. Moderate-to-severe MAC was defined as calcification extent ≥120° of the mitral annulus. Significant functional mitral stenosis (MS) was defined as a transmitral mean diastolic pressure gradient ≥5 mmHg. Results: Women more frequently had moderate-to-severe MAC and concomitant mitral regurgitation than men; however, significant functional MS was comparable between sexes. In the logistic regression analysis, old age, uncontrolled hypertension, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were significantly associated with moderate-to-severe MAC in women, whereas ESRD and moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis were in men. In the Cox regression analysis, significant functional MS was associated with all-cause death in both sexes, although an independent association was found in only women. Conclusion: Women had more extended MAC than men. Significant functional MS was independently associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in patients with MAC, which was more pronounced in women than in men.
DOI
10.3389/fcvm.2021.736040
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Seo, Jiwon(서지원) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7641-3739
Shim, Chi Young(심지영) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6136-0136
Cho, Ik Sung(조익성)
Ha, Jong Won(하종원) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8260-2958
Hong, Geu Ru(홍그루) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4981-3304
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/187154
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