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Immunology and Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

Authors
 Yoon-Soo Hah  ;  Kyo-Chul Koo 
Citation
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol.22(9) : 4452, 2021-05 
Journal Title
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
Issue Date
2021-05
MeSH
Animals ; Carcinoma, Renal Cell / immunology ; Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology ; Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy* ; Humans ; Immunotherapy / methods* ; Kidney Neoplasms / immunology ; Kidney Neoplasms / pathology ; Kidney Neoplasms / therapy* ; Tumor Microenvironment / immunology*
Keywords
biomarkers ; clinical trials ; immune checkpoint inhibitor ; immunotherapy ; renal cell carcinoma
Abstract
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant tumor associated with various tumor microenvironments (TMEs). The immune system is activated by the development of cancer and drives T cell anti-tumor response. CD8 T cells are known to improve clinical outcomes and sensitivity to immunotherapy, and play a crucial role against tumors. In contrast, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) suppress immunity against malignancy and lead to tumor progression. TAMs are promoted from damaged TMEs and mount proinflammatory responses to pathogens. Initial immunotherapy consists of interferon-α and interleukin-2. However, response to such therapy is unclear in most patients, and it is associated with high levels of toxicity. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which up-regulate immune responses by blocking the programed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptor, the ligand of PD-1, or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 T cells, have led to a new era of immunotherapy. Furthermore, combination strategies with ICIs have proven effective through several randomized controlled trials. We expect the next generation of immunotherapy to lead to better outcomes based on ongoing trials and inspire new therapeutic strategies.
Files in This Item:
T202102185.pdf Download
DOI
10.3390/ijms22094452
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Urology (비뇨의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Koo, Kyo Chul(구교철) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7303-6256
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/184105
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