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Clinical Characteristics and Relevance of Oral Candida Biofilm in Tongue Smears

Authors
 Eunae Cho  ;  YounJung Park  ;  Ki-Yeol Kim  ;  Dawool Han  ;  Hyun Sil Kim  ;  Jeong-Seung Kwon  ;  Hyung-Joon Ahn 
Citation
 JOURNAL OF FUNGI, Vol.7(2) : 77, 2021-01 
Journal Title
 JOURNAL OF FUNGI 
Issue Date
2021-01
Keywords
Candida ; atrophic candidiasis ; biofilm ; erythematous candidiasis ; hyphae ; oral candidiasis ; smears ; tongue
Abstract
Dimorphic Candida exist as commensal yeast carriages or infiltrate hyphae in the oral cavity. Here, we investigated the clinical relevance of Candida hyphae in non-pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (OC) by smears of tongue biofilms. We conducted a retrospective study of 2829 patients who had had tongue smears regardless of OC suspicion. Clinical characteristics were evaluated using a novel method of assessing hyphae. Clinical factors (moderate/severe stimulated pain, pain aggravated by stimulation, tongue dorsum appearance and initial topical antifungal use) were highly significant in the high-grade hyphae group but were statistically similar in the low-grade hyphae and non-observed hyphae group, suggesting low-grade hyphae infection as a subclinical OC state. In addition to erythematous candidiasis (EC), a new subtype named "morphologically normal symptomatic candidiasis" (MNSC) with specific pain patterns and normal tongue morphology was identified. MNSC had a significantly higher proportion of moderate and severe stimulated pain cases than EC. Low unstimulated salivary flow rate (<0.1 mL/min) was found to be a common risk factor in MNSC and EC. In non-pseudomembranous OC, pain patterns were dependent on Candida hyphae degree regardless of tongue dorsum morphology. Morphologic differences seen in high-grade hyphae infection were not associated with systemic diseases or nutritional deficiencies.
Files in This Item:
T202101010.pdf Download
DOI
10.3390/jof7020077
Appears in Collections:
2. College of Dentistry (치과대학) > Dept. of Orofacial Pain and Oral Medicine (구강내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
2. College of Dentistry (치과대학) > Others (기타) > 1. Journal Papers
2. College of Dentistry (치과대학) > Dept. of Oral Pathology (구강병리학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kwon, Jeong Seung(권정승) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4584-7355
Kim, Ki Yeol(김기열) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5357-1067
Kim, Hyun Sil(김현실) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3614-1764
Park, Youn-Jung(박연정) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9152-7849
Ahn, Hyoung Joon(안형준)
Cho, Eunae(조은애산드라) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0820-3019
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/182325
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