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Malignant potential of small pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm and its risk factors: A multicenter nationwide study

 Woo Hyun Paik  ;  Hee Seung Lee  ;  Kyong Joo Lee  ;  Sung Ill Jang  ;  Woo Jin Lee  ;  Jin-Hyeok Hwang  ;  Chang Min Cho  ;  Chang-Hwan Park  ;  Jimin Han  ;  Sang Myung Woo  ;  Seok Jeong  ;  Hyung Ku Chon  ;  Tae Nyeun Kim  ;  Jun Kyu Lee  ;  Joung-Ho Han  ;  Jai Hoon Yoon  ;  Yong-Tae Kim  ;  Jae Hee Cho 
 PANCREATOLOGY, Vol.21(1) : 208-214, 2021-01 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Metastasis ; Pancreatic neoplasm ; Prognosis ; Recurrence ; Size
Background: Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) show heterogeneous biological behavior, and most small PNENs show indolent features. Consequently, selected cases can be considered for observation only, according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline, however, supporting clinical evidence is lacking. We investigated the clinical course of small PNENs and their risk factors for malignant potential. Methods: A total of 158 patients with small pathologically confirmed PNENs ≤2 cm in initial imaging were retrospectively enrolled from 14 institutions. The primary outcome was any metastasis or recurrence event during follow-up. Results: The median age was 57 years (range, 22-82 years), and 86 patients (54%) were female. The median tumor size at initial diagnosis was 13 mm (range, 7-20 mm). PNENs were pathologically confirmed by surgery in 137 patients and by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) in 21 patients. Eight patients underwent EUS-FNAB followed by surgical resection. The results of WHO grade were available in 150 patients, and revealed 123 grade 1, 25 grade 2, and 2 neuroendocrine carcinomas. A total of 145 patients (92%) underwent surgical resection, and three patients had regional lymph node metastasis. During the entire follow-up of median 45.6 months, 11 metastases or recurrences (7%) occurred. WHO grade 2 (HR 13.97, 95% CI 2.60-75.03, p = 0.002) was the only predictive factor for malignant potential in multivariable analysis. Conclusions: WHO grade is responsible for the malignant potential of small PNENs ≤2 cm. Thus, EUS-FNAB could be recommended in order to provide early treatment strategies of small PNENs.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Lee, Hee Seung(이희승) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2825-3160
Jang, Sung Ill(장성일) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4937-6167
Cho, Jae Hee(조재희) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4174-0091
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