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Factors affecting contracting Malaria in Chanka town, Ethiopia

 Bedada, Assefa Beyi 
 Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) 
 Global heath security detection program 
Issue Date
Malaria is usually considered as problem of the rural poor and the disease has been overlooked in urban settings due to assumption that economic development in urban areas results in better life conditions, such as improved housing, drainage system and environmental situations that enable urban settings not favorable for breeding of mosquitoes. However, for many African countries, including Ethiopia, in most urban areas, although there is rapid development, they are characterized by poor housing, lack of sanitation and drainage of surface water that would provide conducive situations for vector breeding. Inadequate studies have been conducted as far as urban malaria is concerned in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study is to assess factors contributing to contracting malaria in one of rapidly growing town, Chanka, Ethiopia. So identifying factors affecting contracting malaria in rapidly growing small towns; where public health interventions are minimal is helpful for policy makers and stakeholders to design effective and efficient intervention strategies targeting those settings. 227 households were randomly selected from family folder in five health posts in Chanka town, Ethiopia. Volunteer households were visited and interviewed by using pretested questionnaire. Observation of the household and the surrounding area was one of the main activities conducted by the data collector. The study was retrospective community based cross-sectional household survey which was conducted between the beginnings of March to the end of May 2018. Demographic characteristics, window screened with mosquito wire mesh, indoor residual spray, latrine usage, main materials of rooms’ wall and insecticide treated nets usage were investigated using logistic regression analysis in SPSS version 25 against prevalence/morbidity of malaria in the households which was dependent variable. Out of 227 respondents 146(64.3%) were male and 81(35.7%) were female. Majority of the houses of the study respondents, 136(59.9%) interior wall had been sprayed against mosquitoes in the past one year and 91(40.1%) were not sprayed which showed statistically significant difference between sprayed and non-sprayed in contracting malaria/morbidity. In case of toilet facility used by households, more than half of the study participants 119(52.4%) use latrine with cement slab, while 91(47.6%) of them have no standard toilet facility or used open field. 118(52.0%) and 109(48.0%) of the study participants house room walls were made from cement and mud blocks respectively . In case of screening window with mosquito wire mesh, although it minimizes the contact between people and mosquito it is not statistically significant. This study showed that Factors that affect contracting malaria in rural areas are also there in rapidly growing towns in developing countries; which are supposed to have better housing conditions, environmental situations, surface water drainage and sanitation. Contracting malaria in poor urban areas is affected by several factors such as window screened by mosquito wire mesh, types of material for homes’ wall, indoor residual spraying and sanitation facilities. Therefore, attention should be given to those poor urban areas with respect to malaria intervention strategies and further research should be conducted.
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