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Particulate matter at third trimester and respiratory infection in infants, modified by GSTM1

 Song-I Yang  ;  Hyo-Bin Kim  ;  Hwan-Cheol Kim  ;  So-Yeon Lee  ;  Mi-Jin Kang  ;  Hyun-Ju Cho  ;  Jisun Yoon  ;  Sungsu Jung  ;  Eun Lee  ;  Hyeon-Jong Yang  ;  Kangmo Ahn  ;  Kyung Won Kim  ;  Youn Ho Shin  ;  Dong In Suh  ;  Soo-Jong Hong 
 PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Vol.55(1) : 245-253, 2020-01 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Adult ; Air Pollutants / analysis* ; Female ; Glutathione Transferase / genetics* ; Humans ; Infant ; Male ; Maternal Exposure ; Nitrogen Dioxide / analysis ; Ozone / analysis ; Particulate Matter / analysis* ; Polymorphism, Genetic ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy Trimester, Third* ; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / epidemiology* ; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / genetics ; Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology* ; Respiratory Tract Infections / genetics
GSTM1 ; particulate matter ; prenatal ; respiratory tract infections ; third trimester
Objectives: To investigate the association between particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) exposure during each trimester of pregnancy and development of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) during the first 3 years of life and whether GSTM1 gene polymorphisms modify these effects.

Methods: This study included 1,180 mother-child pairs from the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases. The PM2.5 levels during pregnancy were estimated by residential address using land-use regression models based on a national monitoring system. A diagnosis of LRTIs was based on a parental report of a physician's diagnosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for GSTM1 genotyping.

Results: Higher PM2.5 exposure during the third trimester was associated with LRTIs at 1 year of age (aRR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00-1.13). This result did not change after adjusting for PM2.5 exposures during the first and second trimesters (aRR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.13). This association was significant after adjusting for PM2.5 exposures during first year of age (aRR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.15) and exposures to NO2 and ozone at the third trimester (aRR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16). In addition, PM2.5 exposure during the third trimester increased the risk of LRTIs at 1 year of age in cases with the GSTM1 null genotype (aRR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01-1.57; P for interaction .20).

Conclusion: Higher PM2.5 exposure during the third trimester of pregnancy may increase the susceptibility to LRTIs at 1 year of age. This effect is modified by GSTM1 gene polymorphisms.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Pediatrics (소아과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Kyung Won(김경원) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4529-6135
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