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Update of the current knowledge on genetics, evolution, immunopathogenesis, and transmission for coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)

Authors
 Kalthoum Tizaoui  ;  Ines Zidi  ;  Keum Hwa Lee  ;  Ramy Abou Ghayda  ;  Sung Hwi Hong  ;  Han Li  ;  Lee Smith  ;  Ai Koyanagi  ;  Louis Jacob  ;  Andreas Kronbichler  ;  Jae Il Shin 
Citation
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol.16(15) : 2906-2923, 2020-11 
Journal Title
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 
Issue Date
2020-11
MeSH
Animals ; Betacoronavirus / genetics* ; China / epidemiology ; Clinical Laboratory Techniques ; Coronavirus Infections / diagnosis ; Coronavirus Infections / immunology* ; Coronavirus Infections / transmission* ; Genomics ; Humans ; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ; Pandemics ; Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / metabolism ; Phylogeny ; Pneumonia, Viral / immunology* ; Pneumonia, Viral / transmission*
Keywords
COVID-19 ; Immunity ; SARS-CoV-2 ; SARS-CoV-2 genomics ; evolution ; genetic variation ; transmission
Abstract
In December 2019, an acute respiratory disease caused by novel species of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China and has spread throughout the world. On 11th March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) a pandemic, severe coronavirus-mediated human disease. Based on genomic and phylogenetic studies, SARS-CoV-2 might originate from bat coronaviruses and infects humans directly or through intermediate zoonotic hosts. However, the exact origin or the host intermediate remains unknown. Genetically, SARS-CoV-2 is similar to several existing coronaviruses, particularly SARS-CoV, but differs by silent and non-silent mutations. The virus uses different transmission routes and targets cells and tissues with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein, which makes it contagious. COVID-19 shares both the main clinical features and excessive/dysregulated cell responses with the two previous Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS) epidemics. In this review, we provide an update of the current knowledge on the COVID-19 pandemic. Gaining a deeper understanding of SARS-CoV-2 structure, transmission routes, and molecular responses, will assist in the prevention and control of COVID-19 outbreaks in the future.
Files in This Item:
T202004486.pdf Download
DOI
10.7150/ijbs.48812
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Pediatrics (소아과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Shin, Jae Il(신재일) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2326-1820
Lee, Keum Hwa(이금화) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1511-9587
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/180251
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