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북한 청소년의 생활과 발달에 대한 연구

Other Titles
 Life and Development of Adolescents in North Korea 
 민성길  ;  전우택  ;  윤덕룡 
 Journal of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association (신경정신의학), Vol.38(5) : 1047-1062, 1999 
Journal Title
 Journal of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association (신경정신의학) 
Issue Date
탈북자 ; Adolescents ; 북한 ; North Korea ; 청소년
Objective : This study aimed to understand the life and development of adolescents in North Korea. Methods : The authors interviewed North Korean adolescent defectors on the past life history in North Korea, and also collected information by questionnanire from North Korean adult defectors on their views about the life and development of North Korean adolescents. Results : The lives of adolescents in North Korea seem to be poor, tough, dry, and monotonous. However, familial bonds seem to be strong, which is contrast to the general impression that family is not important anymore in a socialist nation. Social pressure seems to be strong enough to force adolescents to leave home at an early age. The school education seems to be focused on shaping them according to socialist ideology and national policy. The social atmosphere seems to be authoritative and of patriarchy, probably influenced by traditional confucian philosophy. In general, filial piety for the father figures(including a national father, the late president, Kim Il Sung and the current leader, Kim Jung Il), altruism, social contribution, patriotism, and a moral socialist personality are strongly emphasized in education. The effectiveness of teaching methods mainly based on a punishment system and public criticism seems to be very limited in being integrated to true mature personality development. Recently, the life view and behavior pattern of adolescents in North Korea see to be changing according to the severe economic crisis and expanding knowledge about the outside world. Particularly, their interest in making money is increasing with a parallel increase of delinquent behavior. Physical development seems to be delayed along with a delay in psychosocial development. Their cognitive functioning looks also to be delayed due to the uniformity of education and limitations in intellectual and psychosocial stimulation. In contrast to the literal equality in the rights of men and women in socialist countries, girls' rights are usually ignored by boys. Establishment of psychosexual identity seems delayed and the opportunity for relations with people of the opposite sex seems to be limited. Rather, peer relationships with the same sex and group loyalty are considered to be more valuable. This group orientation seems to lead to national loyalty, loyalty for the Communist Party and Eventually its leader in adult life. Pervasive violent political oppression seems to be the dominating social power. Whole social authorities(father, teacher, Party, nation, leader) seem to be power-oriented figures. Adolescents have been programed to bow down and resign to oppression rather than to protest against it. And this compliant behavior has become stereotyped. Identity crises, which so often characterize the adolescent period, seem not to be so turbulent, develop later and finish early with resignation because of the limitation mainly inposed by the political status of their family origin. Ideological morality seems to develope in unbalanced form, related with school education and repeated stereotyped self-criticism. However, their daily lives do not seem to be really moralistic. Conclusion : This study suggests that the life and development of adolescents in North Korea are different in many aspects from those in South Korea. However, compared with the individualism and egocentricism which are known to be personality characteristice of adolescents in South Korea, those of adolescents in North Korea, such as simple mindedness, compliant behavior, strong familial bond, group orientation and loyality and altruism, are considered to make a positive contribution along with a proper education for the future construction of the nation after reunification. These findings also suggest that mutual adaptation problem between people of South and North Korea after reunification will not be simple and both Koreans have to prepare themselves in advance for future problems through prior studies.
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Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Psychiatry (정신과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Medical Education (의학교육학과) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Min, Sung Kil(민성길)
Jeon, Woo Taek(전우택) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9213-6057
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