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Predictors of Uric Acid Stones: Mean Stone Density, Stone Heterogeneity Index, and Variation Coefficient of Stone Density by Single-Energy Non-Contrast Computed Tomography and Urinary pH

 Jong Chan Kim  ;  Kang Su Cho  ;  Do Kyung Kim  ;  Doo Yong Chung  ;  Hae Do Jung  ;  Joo Yong Lee 
 Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol.8(2) : E243, 2019 
Journal Title
 Journal of Clinical Medicine 
Issue Date
We analyzed the capacities of pertinent parameters (determined by single-energy non-contrast computed tomography [NCCT]) and urinary pH to predict uric acid stones. We reviewed the medical records of 501 patients whose stones were removed surgically or passed spontaneously between December 2014 and April 2016. Qualifying participants (n = 420) were stratified by the nature of the stone (calcium oxalate, uric acid, or infectious). Based on NCCT, we determined maximal stone length (MSL), mean stone density (MSD), and stone heterogeneity index (SHI) using Hounsfield units (HU) and calculated the variant coefficient of stone density (VCSD = SHI/MSD × 100). Urinary pH was also ascertained. Mean patient age was 55.55 ± 15.46 years. MSD (448.59 ± 173.21 HU), SHI (100.81 ± 77.37 HU), and VCSD (22.58 ± 10.55) proved to be significantly lower in uric acid versus other types of stones, as did urinary pH (5.33 ± 0.56; all p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves depicting predictability of uric acid stones yielded area under ROC curve (AUC) values for MSD, SHI, VCSD, and urinary pH of 0.806 (95% CI: 0.761⁻0.850), 0.893 (95% CI: 0.855⁻0.931), 0.782 (95% CI: 0.726⁻0.839), and 0.797 (95% CI: 0.749⁻0.846), respectively, with corresponding cutpoints of 572.3 HU, 140.4 HU, 25.79, and 6.0. Among these four parameters, SHI was verifiably (DeLong's test) the most effective predictor of uric acid stones (all p < 0.001). Compared with MSD, VCSD, and urinary pH, SHI may better predict uric acid stones, using a cutpoint of 140.4 HU.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Urology (비뇨의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Do Kyung(김도경)
Kim, Jong Chan(김종찬) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0022-6689
Lee, Joo Yong(이주용) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3470-1767
Chung, Doo Yong(정두용)
Jung, Hae Do(정해도)
Cho, Kang Su(조강수) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3500-8833
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