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Association between Self-Reported Smoking and Hemoglobin A1c in a Korean Population without Diabetes: The 2011-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

 Jae Won Hong  ;  Cheol Ryong Ku  ;  Jung Hyun Noh  ;  Kyung Soo Ko  ;  Byoung Doo Rhee  ;  Dong-Jun Kim 
 PLOS ONE, Vol.10(5) : e0126746, 2015 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Adult ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group* ; Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism* ; Female ; Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism* ; Humans ; Linear Models ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Multivariate Analysis ; Nutrition Surveys* ; Republic of Korea ; Risk Factors ; Self Report* ; Smoking/epidemiology*
BACKGROUND: Several Western studies have revealed that among non-diabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are higher in smokers than non-smokers. While studies conducted in Western populations consistently support this association, a recent meta-analysis reported that studies carried out in non-Western populations, including studies of Chinese, Egyptian, and Japanese-Americans, did not detect any significant differences in HbA1c levels between smokers and non-smokers. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between smoking habits and HbA1c levels in the general Korean adult population using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011-2012. METHODS: A total of 10,241 participants (weighted n=33,946,561 including 16,769,320 men and 17,177,241 women) without diabetes were divided into four categories according to their smoking habits: never smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n=6,349/19,105,564), ex-smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 1,912/6,207,144), current light smokers (<15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=1,205/5,130,073), and current heavy smokers (≥15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=775/3,503,781). RESULTS: In age- and gender-adjusted comparisons, the HbA1c levels of each group were 5.52 ± 0.01% in non-smokers, 5.49 ± 0.01% in ex-smokers, 5.53 ± 0.01% in light smokers, and 5.61 ± 0.02% in heavy smokers. HbA1c levels were significantly higher in light smokers than in ex-smokers (p = 0.033), and in heavy smokers compared with light smokers (p < 0.001). The significant differences remained after adjusting for age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, heavy alcohol drinking, hematocrit, college graduation, and waist circumference. Linear regression analyses for HbA1c using the above-mentioned variables as covariates revealed that a significant association between current smoking and HbA1c (coefficient 0.021, 95% CI 0.003-0.039, p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking was independently associated with higher HbA1c levels in a cigarette exposure-dependent manner in a representative population of Korean non-diabetic adults. In this study, we have observed an association between smoking status and HbA1c levels in non-diabetics drawn from a non-Western population, consistent with previous findings in Western populations.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Ku, Cheol Ryong(구철룡) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8693-9630
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