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Effects of intravenous fentanyl around the end of surgery on emergence agitation in children: Systematic review and meta-analysis

 Namo Kim  ;  Jin Ha Park  ;  Jong Seok Lee  ;  Taeyang Choi  ;  Min‐Soo Kim 
 PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Vol.27(9) : 885-892, 2017 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Adolescent ; Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage ; Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology* ; Child ; Drug Administration Schedule ; Fentanyl/administration & dosage ; Fentanyl/pharmacology* ; Humans ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Postoperative Complications/chemically induced* ; Postoperative Complications/prevention & control* ; Psychomotor Agitation/prevention & control*
anesthesia ; child ; delirium ; fentanyl ; pediatrics ; psychomotor agitation
BACKGROUND: Emergence agitation is a serious postoperative problem in children undergoing general anesthesia. The use of fentanyl around the end of surgery has been proposed to prevent emergence agitation. However, the efficacy and disadvantages of this method remain uncertain because previous results have not been consistent, depending on the variable assessed. METHODS: In July 2016, the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and KoreaMed were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared fentanyl (1 μg/kg) and placebo administered around the end of surgery to prevent emergence agitation after general anesthesia in children between birth and 14 years of age. The collected outcomes included the incidence or score of emergence agitation, variables regarding anesthesia recovery, and adverse events (eg, postoperative nausea or vomiting). RESULTS: A total of 10 randomized controlled trials (718 patients, 357 receiving fentanyl) were included. Fentanyl around the end of surgery significantly decreased emergence agitation incidence (emergence agitation: relative risk 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.53, I2 =0.0%; severe emergence agitation: relative risk 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.81, I2 =0.0%). From subgroup analyses, fentanyl at the end of surgery was associated with a prolonged postanesthesia care unit stay and increased postoperative nausea or vomiting incidence (weighted mean difference 6.09, 95% confidence interval 2.77 to 9.41, I2 =58.6%; relative risk 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.58 to 4.33, I2 =32.4%), whereas fentanyl at 10-20 minutes before the end of surgery did not increase postanesthesia care unit stay or postoperative nausea or vomiting risk (weighted mean difference -1.15, 95% confidence interval -5.15 to 2.85, I2 =89.0%; relative risk 1.32, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 2.66, I2 =0.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The current analyses indicate that fentanyl around the end of surgery reduces the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing general anesthesia.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (마취통증의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Namo(김남오) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0829-490X
Kim, Min Soo(김민수) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8760-4568
Park, Jin Ha(박진하) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1398-3304
Lee, Jong Seok(이종석) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7945-2530
Choi, Taeyang(최태양) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1594-7574
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