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Effect of Mild Hypercapnia on Lung Oxygenation in Sitting Position During Shoulder Arthroscopy Under General Anesthesia

 Hyun Jeong Kwak  ;  Ji Yeon Lee  ;  Jong Wha Lee  ;  Hong Soon Kim  ;  Ho Jin Hur  ;  Ji Young Kim 
 MEDICAL SCIENCE MONITOR, Vol.23 : 843-849, 2017 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Aged ; Anesthesia, General/methods* ; Arterial Pressure ; Arthroscopy/methods* ; Blood Gas Analysis ; Female ; Hemodynamics/physiology ; Humans ; Hypercapnia/blood ; Hypercapnia/metabolism* ; Hypoventilation/blood ; Hypoventilation/metabolism ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Oxygen/administration & dosage* ; Oxygen/blood* ; Posture ; Pulmonary Ventilation ; Shoulder/surgery*
Hypercapnia ; Hypoventilation ; Respiratory Dead Space
BACKGROUND : Mild hypercapnia is permitted during surgeries in sitting position under general anesthesia to maintain cerebral regional oxygen saturation (rSO2). However, since hypoventilation may cause gas exchange impairment, we evaluated effects of mild hypercapnia on lung oxygenation during shoulder arthroscopy in sitting position. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Forty patients were randomly allocated to a normocapnia group (ETCO2 35 mmHg, n=20) or a hypercapnia group (45 mmHg, n=20). The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and rSO2 were measured 5 min after intubation in supine position (T0), and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min of remaining in sitting position (T1-10). Arterial blood gas was analyzed at T0 and T5. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) and dead-space ventilation ratio (Vd/Vt) were calculated. RESULTS : There were no differences in PaO2/FiO2 at T0 and T5 between the 2 groups. At T5, the Vd/Vt was higher in the normocapnia group than in the hypercapnia group (p=0.04). The Vd/Vt at T5 increased from T0 in the normocapnia group. The incidence of cerebral desaturation in the hypercapnia group (0/20) was lower than in the normocapnia group (5/20) (p=0.047). Among rSO2, MAP, and HR, only changes in rSO2 over time between the 2 groups differed significantly (p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS Mild hypercapnia did not decrease lung oxygenation in sitting position, probably due to attenuation of the increase in dead-space ventilation ratio. Since hypercapnia maintained rSO2 without changes in oxygenation index and hemodynamic parameters, mild hypercapnia should be maintained during shoulder arthroscopy in sitting position under general anesthesia.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (마취통증의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Ji Young(김지영) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5822-0338
Lee, Jong Wha(이종화)
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