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Factors Associated with Higher Reported Pain Levels in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional, Correlational Analysis

 Sang Jun Park  ;  Duck Mi Yoon  ;  Kyung Bong Yoon  ;  Ji Ae Moon  ;  Shin Hyung Kim 
 PLOS ONE, Vol.11(9) : e0163132, 2016 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Adult ; Age Factors ; Aged ; Chronic Pain/etiology* ; Chronic Pain/physiopathology ; Chronic Pain/psychology ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Musculoskeletal Pain/etiology* ; Musculoskeletal Pain/physiopathology ; Musculoskeletal Pain/psychology ; Pain Measurement* ; Retrospective Studies ; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications
BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, disabling, and costly, and has many negative effects on quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with higher reported pain levels in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain among demographic, clinical, and psychological factors, and to evaluate whether insomnia is independently associated with pain intensity in this population. METHODS: A total of 357 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (pain duration ≥ six months) satisfied the study inclusion criteria and were included in the analyses. Patient demographics, clinical, and psychological factors were evaluated with hierarchical multivariate logistic analysis to identify factors associated with severe pain (NRS [numeric rating scale] ≥ 7). Hierarchical linear regression analysis also performed to identify factors associated with pain intensity (0 to 10 NRS). RESULTS: Multivariate logistic analyses revealed older age (OR [odds ratio] = 1.017, 95% CI [confidence interval] 1.001-1.032, P = 0.034), high anxiety level (OR = 1.162, 95% CI 1.020-1.324, P = 0.024), high pain catastrophizing (OR = 1.043, 95% CI 1.007-1.081, P = 0.018), and severe insomnia (OR = 1.112, 95% CI 1.057-1.170, P<0.001) were significantly associated with severe pain. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed age (β = 0.106, P = 0.041), pain catastrophizing (β = 0.249, P<0.001), and insomnia (β = 0.286, P<0.001) were significantly associated with pain intensity. The variance in pain intensity explained by the final model was 32.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, severe insomnia, and high pain catastrophizing were significantly associated with higher reported pain levels. Insomnia was independently associated with pain intensity, even after controlling for various demographic and clinical factors. These factors should be considered when devising pain management strategies for this population.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (마취통증의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Shin Hyung(김신형) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4058-7697
Park, Sang Jun(박상준) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2496-7764
Yoon, Kyoung Bong(윤경봉) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4167-1375
Yoon, Duck Mi(윤덕미)
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