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Is Arthroscopic Bone Graft and Fixation for Scaphoid Nonunions Effective?

 Ho Jung Kang  ;  Yong-Min Chun  ;  Il Hyun Koh  ;  Jae Han Park  ;  Yun Rak Choi 
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Adult ; Arthroscopy*/adverse effects ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Bone Transplantation/adverse effects ; Bone Transplantation/methods* ; Disability Evaluation ; Female ; Fracture Fixation*/adverse effects ; Fracture Healing ; Fractures, Ununited/diagnosis ; Fractures, Ununited/physiopathology ; Fractures, Ununited/surgery* ; Hand Injuries/diagnosis ; Hand Injuries/physiopathology ; Hand Injuries/surgery* ; Hand Strength ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Pain Measurement ; Pain, Postoperative/etiology ; Range of Motion, Articular ; Recovery of Function ; Retrospective Studies ; Scaphoid Bone/diagnostic imaging ; Scaphoid Bone/injuries ; Scaphoid Bone/physiopathology ; Scaphoid Bone/surgery* ; Time Factors ; Tomography, X-Ray Computed ; Treatment Outcome ; Young Adult
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic management of scaphoid nonunions has been advanced as a less invasive technique that allows evaluation of associated intrinsic and extrinsic ligamentous injuries; however, few studies have documented the effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment of scaphoid nonunions and which intraarticular pathologies coexist with scaphoid nonunions.
QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What are the outcomes of arthroscopic management of scaphoid nonunions as assessed by the proportion of patients achieving osseous union, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, grip strength, range of motion, Mayo Wrist Score (MWS), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score? (2) What complications are associated with arthroscopic scaphoid nonunion management? (3) What forms of intraarticular pathology are associated with scaphoid nonunions?
METHODS: Between 2008 and 2012, we treated 80 patients surgically for scaphoid nonunions. Of those, 45 (56%) had arthroscopic management. During that time, our general indications for using an arthroscopic approach over an open approach were symptomatic scaphoid nonunions without necrosis of the proximal fragment, severe deformities, or arthritis. Of the patients treated arthroscopically, 33 (73%) were available for followup at least 2 years later. There were five distal third, 19 middle third, and nine proximal third fractures. The mean followup was 33 months (range, 24-60 months). Union was determined by CT taken at 8 to 10 weeks after operation with bridging trabecula at nonunion site. VAS pain scores, grip strength, active flexion-extension angle, MWS, and DASH scores were obtained preoperatively and at each followup visit. The coexisting intraarticular pathologies and complications were also recorded.
RESULTS: Thirty-two (97%) scaphoid nonunions healed successfully. At the last followup, the mean VAS pain score decreased (preoperative: mean 4.5 [SD 1.8], postoperative: mean 0.6 [SD 0.8], mean difference: 3.9 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.2-4.6], p < 0.001) and the mean active flexion-extension angle increased (preoperative: mean 100° [SD 26], postoperative: mean 109° [SD 16], mean difference: 9° [95% CI, 2-16], p = 0.017). The mean grip strength increased (preoperative: mean 35 kg of force [SD 8], postoperative: mean 50 kg of force [SD 10], mean difference: 15 kg of force [95% CI, 11-19], p < 0.001). The mean MWS increased (preoperative: mean 56 [SD 23], postoperative: mean 89 [SD 8], mean difference: 33 [95% CI, 26-41], p < 0.001) and the mean DASH score decreased (preoperative: mean 25 [SD 18], postoperative: mean 4 [SD 3], mean difference: 21 [95% CI, 15-28], p < 0.001). There were no operation-related complications and no progression of arthritis at the last followup. Seventeen patients had coexisting intraarticular pathology, including nine triangular fibrocartilage complex tears (seven traumatic and two degenerative), 17 intrinsic ligament tears (nine scapholunate interosseous ligament tears and eight lunotriquetral interosseous ligament tears), and five mild radioscaphoid degenerative changes.
CONCLUSIONS: Arthroscopic management of scaphoid nonunions without severe deformities or arthritis was effective in this small series. Although intraarticular pathologies such as triangular fibrocartilage complex tears and intrinsic ligament injuries commonly coexisted with scaphoid nonunions, patients generally achieved good results.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery (정형외과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kang, Ho Jung(강호정) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0273-1264
Koh, Il Hyun(고일현) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9823-8516
Park, Jae Han(박재한) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6801-612X
Chun, Yong Min(천용민) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8147-6136
Choi, Yun Rak(최윤락)
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