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The familial phenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder in relation to tic disorders: the Hopkins OCD family study

 Marco A Grados  ;  Mark A Riddle  ;  Jack F Samuels  ;  Kung-Yee Liang  ;  Rudolf Hoehn-Saric  ;  O.Joseph Bienvenu  ;  John T Walkup  ;  DongHo Song  ;  Gerald Nestadt 
 Biological Psychiatry, Vol.50(8) : 559-565, 2001 
Journal Title
 Biological Psychiatry 
Issue Date
Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders have phenomenological and familial-genetic overlaps. An OCD family study sample that excludes Tourette’s syndrome in probands is used to examine whether tic disorders are part of the familial phenotype of OCD. Methods: Eighty case and 73 control probands and their first-degree relatives were examined by experienced clinicians using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime Anxiety version. DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses were ascertained by a best-estimate consensus procedure. The prevalence and severity of tic disorders, age-at-onset of OCD symptoms, and transmission of OCD and tic disorders by characteristics and type of proband (OCD + tic disorder, OCD − tic disorder) were examined in relatives. Results: Case probands and case relatives had a greater lifetime prevalence of tic disorders compared to control subjects. Tic disorders spanning a wide severity range were seen in case relatives; only mild severity was seen in control relatives. Younger age-at-onset of OCD symptoms and possibly male gender in case probands were associated with increased tic disorders in relatives. Although relatives of OCD + tic disorder and OCD − tic disorder probands had similar prevalences of tic disorders, this result is not conclusive. Conclusions: Tic disorders constitute an alternate expression of the familial OCD phenotype.
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1. Journal Papers (연구논문) > 1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Psychiatry (정신과학교실)
Yonsei Authors
송동호(Song, Dong Ho) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9647-3130
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