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Normal-weight obesity is associated with increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis

 Sohee Kim  ;  Chanhee Kyung  ;  Jong Suk Park  ;  Seung-Pyo Lee  ;  Hye Kyoung Kim  ;  Chul Woo Ahn  ;  Kyung Rae Kim  ;  Shinae Kang 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Adiposity* ; Adult ; Age Factors ; Aged ; Asymptomatic Diseases* ; Blood Glucose ; Blood Pressure ; Body Mass Index ; C-Reactive Protein/metabolism ; Cholesterol, HDL/blood ; Coronary Angiography ; Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging ; Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology* ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; Fatty Liver/epidemiology ; Female ; Humans ; Hypertension/epidemiology ; Intra-Abdominal Fat* ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Multidetector Computed Tomography ; Obesity/epidemiology ; Odds Ratio ; Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging ; Plaque, Atherosclerotic/epidemiology* ; Risk Factors ; Triglycerides/blood ; Vascular Stiffness*
Atherosclerosis ; Coronary computed tomography angiography ; Fat ; Obesity ; Pulse wave velocity ; Weight ; Plaque
BACKGROUND: Subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) but elevated amounts of body fat (normal-weight obesity; NWO) show cardiometabolic dysregulation compared to subjects with normal BMI and normal amounts of body fat (normal-weight lean; NWL). In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether NWO individuals have higher rates of subclinical atherosclerosis compared to NWL subjects. METHODS: From a large-scale health checkup system, we identified 2078 normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) subjects with no previous history of coronary artery disease who underwent analysis of atherosclerosis using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). NWO was defined as normal BMI and highest tertile of body fat percentage by sex (men ≥ 25. 4 % and women ≥ 31.4 %). CCTA was performed using a 64-detector row CT. A plaque was defined as a structure >1 mm(2) within and/or adjacent to the vessel lumen and classified according to the presence/proportion of intraplaque calcification. RESULTS: NWO subjects (n = 283) demonstrated metabolic dysregulation compared to NWL individuals (n = 1795). After adjusting for age, sex, and smoking, NWO individuals showed higher PWV values than NWL individuals (1474.0 ± 275.4 vs. 1380.7 ± 234.3 cm/s, p = 0.006 by ANCOVA). Compared with NWL subjects, NWO subjects had a higher prevalence of soft plaques even after age, sex, and smoking adjustment (21.6% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.039 by ANCOVA). The PWV value and the log{(number of segments with plaque) + 1} showed a positive correlation with numerous parameters such as age, systolic blood pressure, visceral fat, fasting glucose level, serum triglyceride level, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in contrast to the negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. The visceral fat was an independent determinant of log{(number of segments with plaque) + 1} (ß = 0.027, SE = 0.011, p = 0.016) even after adjustment for other significant factors. Most importantly, NWO was an independent risk factor for the presence of soft plaques (odds ratio 1.460, 95 % confidence interval 1.027-2.074, p = 0.035) even after further adjustment for multiple factors associated with atherosclerosis (blood pressure, blood glucose, lipid level, CRP, medication, smoking status, physical activity). CONCLUSIONS: NWO individuals carry a higher incidence of subclinical atherosclerosis compared with NWL individuals, regardless of other clinical risk factors for atherosclerosis.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kang, Shin Ae(강신애) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9719-4774
Kyung, Chan Hee(경찬희)
Kim, Kyung Rae(김경래)
Kim, So Hee(김소희)
Park, Jong Suk(박종숙) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5385-1373
Ahn, Chul Woo(안철우) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3733-7486
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