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Olfactory performance acts as a cognitive reserve in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease.

 Ji E Lee  ;  Kyoo H Cho  ;  Jee Hyun Ham  ;  Sook K Song  ;  Young H Sohn  ;  Phil Hyu Lee 
 PARKINSONISM & RELATED DISORDERS, Vol.20(2) : 186-191, 2014 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Aged ; Cognition/physiology ; Cognitive Reserve/physiology* ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Neuropsychological Tests ; Parkinson Disease/complications ; Parkinson Disease/pathology* ; Parkinson Disease/physiopathology* ; Smell/physiology*
Cognitive reserve ; Olfaction ; Parkinson's disease ; Voxel-based morphometry
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether olfactory performance acts as a cognitive reserve in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).
METHODS: Patients with non-demented PD (n = 119) underwent T1-weighted MRI and olfactory identification tests. According to their olfactory performance, PD patients were subdivided into three groups of high score (PD-H, n = 38), middle score (PD-M, n = 48), and low score (PD-L, n = 33). We investigated the pattern of gray matter (GM) density according to olfactory performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and analyzed the correlation between GM density and olfactory performance.
RESULTS: No significant differences in demographic characteristics were observed among the groups. A neuropsychological test showed that cognitive deficits in verbal memory function were more severe in the PD-L group than in the PD-H group. However, a VBM analysis revealed that patients in the PD-H group possessed significantly decreased GM density in the bilateral temporal areas, orbitofrontal areas, mesiofrontal areas extending into the cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal areas, compared with patients in the PD-L group. No areas exhibiting a significant difference in GM density were observed between the PD-H and PD-M groups. Olfactory performance in patients with PD was negatively correlated with both the brain GM volume and intracerebral volume; in particular, GM density in the caudate nucleus and putamen exhibited a negative correlation with olfactory performance.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that a high olfactory performance may compensate GM volume loss in order to minimize the exhibition of cognitive impairment and thus may act as a cognitive reserve in non-demented patients with PD.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Neurology (신경과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Sohn, Young Ho(손영호) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6533-2610
Lee, Ji Eun(이지은)
Lee, Phil Hyu(이필휴) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9931-8462
Cho, Kyoo Ho(조규호) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2402-7198
Ham, Jee Hyun(함지현)
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