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Effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on glial scar formation after spinal cord injury in rats

 Joonho Chung  ;  Moon Hang Kim  ;  Yong Je Yoon  ;  Kil Hwan Kim  ;  So Ra Park  ;  Byung Hyune Choi 
 JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY-SPINE, Vol.21(6) : 966-973, 2014 
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Issue Date
Animals ; Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism ; Cicatrix/etiology ; Cicatrix/pathology ; Cicatrix/prevention & control* ; Disease Models, Animal ; Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism ; Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/pharmacology* ; Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/pharmacology* ; Male ; Motor Activity/drug effects ; Nerve Regeneration/drug effects ; Neuroglia/drug effects* ; Neuroglia/pathology ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5/metabolism ; Recovery of Function/drug effects ; Spinal Cord Injuries/complications ; Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy* ; Spinal Cord Injuries/pathology
BBB = Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan ; CSPG = chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan ; G-CSF ; G-CSF = granulocyte colony–stimulating factor ; GFAP = glial fibrillary acidic protein ; GM-CSF ; GM-CSF = granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor ; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline ; SCI = spinal cord injury ; glial scar ; spinal cord injury
OBJECT: This study investigated the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on glial scar formation after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats and compared the therapeutic effects between G-CSF and granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to evaluate G-CSF as a potential substitute for GM-CSF in clinical application. METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a sham-operated group (Group 1), an SCI group without treatment (Group 2), an SCI group treated with G-CSF (Group 3), and an SCI group treated with GM-CSF (Group 4). G-CSF and GM-CSF were administered via intraperitoneal injection immediately after SCI. The effects of G-CSF and GM-CSF on functional recovery, glial scar formation, and axonal regeneration were evaluated and compared. RESULTS: The rats in Groups 3 and 4 showed better functional recovery and more decreased cavity sizes than those in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Both G-CSF and GM-CSF suppressed intensive expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein around the cavity at 4 weeks and reduced the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (p < 0.05). Also, early administration of G-CSF and GM-CSF protected axon fibers from destructive injury and facilitated axonal regeneration. There were no significant differences in comparisons of functional recovery, glial scar formation, and axonal regeneration between G-CSF and GM-CSF. CONCLUSIONS: G-CSF suppressed glial scar formation after SCI in rats, possibly by restricting the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, which might facilitate functional recovery from SCI. GM-CSF and G-CSF had similar effects on glial scar formation and functional recovery after SCI, suggesting that G-CSF can potentially be substituted for GM-CSF in the treatment of SCI.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Neurosurgery (신경외과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Chung, Joon Ho(정준호)
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