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간호사가 인지하는 역할명확성, 직무특성과 이직의도와의 관계

Other Titles
 Relationship between perceived nursing care role orientation, job characteristics, and turnover among nurses 
Authors
 박현숙 
Issue Date
2002
Description
지역사회 간호학과/석사
Abstract
[한글] 의료조직은 여러 전문직 인력이 함께 일하고 있는 조직체이므로 인적자원의 확보 및 유지가 병원경쟁력의 중요한 요인이 된다. 그러나 인적자원 중 30~40%를 차지하는 간호인력은 조직내에서 다양한 역할담당과 전문직으로서의 성장단계를 거치지 못하고 비용효과적인 경력단계에서 높은 이직율을 보이고 있다. 이에 본 연구는 경력 3년이하의 간호사가 인지하는 간호의 역할명확성과 간호업무의 직무특성을 파악하고 이직의도와의 관계를 분석하여 효율적인 인력관리에 대한 기초자료를 제공하고자 한다. 본 연구는 서술적 조사연구로서, 연구대상은 서울시 소재 2개, 경기도 소재 2개의 종합병원에서 근무하는 3년이하 경력을 가진 간호사 256명을 대상으로 하였다. 연구도구로 설문지를 이용하였으며 역할명확성 측정은 Jacqueline S.이 개발한 도구를 번역하여 사용하 였고, 직무특성은 Hackman과 Oldham에 의하여 개발된 도구를 사용하였다. 자료수집기간은 2002년 5월 10일부터 2002년 5월 24일까지 2주간이었으며 자료수집은 각 병원 간호부의 동의를 얻어 설문지를 총300부 배부하고 256부를 회수하였다. 수집된 자료는 SPSS/PC+를 이용하여 전산처리 하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 다음과 같았다. 1) 연구대상자는 간호업무에 대한 높은 역할명확성(70.3)을 보여주었다. 직무특성중에서는 과업중요성(11.02)과 피드백(10.23)을 높게 인지하였다. 이직의도는 14.5점(총20점)으로 매우 높게 나타내었다. 이직을 생각하는 가장 큰 요인으로는 불규칙한 근무시간이라고 하였다. 2) 연구대상자 역할명확성의 하위영역에서 간호사/환자요인은 근무경력에 따라 유의하였으며, 근무경력 1년미만의 대상자가 가장 높게 인지하였고, 협력요인은 경제상태에 따라 유의한 차이를 보여주었으며 경제수준을 중간정도라고 생각한 집단에서 가장 높게 인지하였다. 직무특성에서 기술다양성은 근무부서에 따라 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있었고, 기타부서, 수술장, 내과계, 외과계의 순서로 높게 인지하였다. 과업중요성은 근무경력과 근무부서에서 유의한 차이를 보여주었으며, 근무경력에서 1년미만의 대상자가 과업중요성을 가장 높게 인지하였다. 근무부서에서는 산소아계, 중환자계, 내과계, 외과계의 순으로 높게 인지하였다. 과업정체성과 자율성은 통계적으로 유의한 변수가 없었다. 마지막으로 피드백은 근무경력이 증가하면 피드백도 높게 인지하였으며, 근무부서에서는 산소아계가 가장 높은 피드백을 인지하였다. 3) 일반적인 특성과 이직의도는 교육수준과 근무경력에 따라 유의한 차이를 보였다. 교육수준에서는 대학졸업자의 이직의도가 가장 높았었고, 대학원이상에서는 전체적인 이직의도는 낮은 반면 조건제공시 타직종으로의 이직의도가 가장 높았었다. 근무경력에서는 1년이상 2년미만의 간호사가 가장 높은 이직의도를 갖고 있었다. 4) 역할명확성, 직무특성, 이직의도와의 상관관계는 역할명확성이 증가하면 이직의도가 약간 감소하였으나, 직무특성요인은 이직의도와 유의한 차이는 없었다. 연구의 결과 이직의도는 역할명확성이나 직무특성보다는 근무경력과 교육수준에 따라 유의한 차이를 보여주므로 경력에 따른 차별화된 교육프로그램이 효율적인 인력관리를 위해 개발되어야 하며, 이직의 가장 큰 요인으로 생각하는 근무체계에 대한 다각적인 방법에 대한 연구가 필요하다.
[영문] It seems that the security and maintenance of personnel resources may be functioned as one of the most important factors in the medical system, and the efficient management of nursing manpower would greatly contribute to the enhancement of competition. However, it is true that nurses have thus far neither played satisfied roles within their hospitals nor gone through proper growth stages, with a high rate of turnover at cost-effective experience stages. With this in view, the objective of this study focused on grasping for the role definition of the nurse and the job specificity of nursing perceived by those nurses with a short career, analysing their relationships with the intention of turnover and then providing basic data needed for efficient personnel management. For that purpose, sampled out from two third-level and two second-level medical institutions were nurses with a short career less than three years. Role definition was measured by the translated version of J. Stemple Role Definition Measurement Tool and job specificity by the Job Diagnosis Survey proposed in the theory of job specificity. The term of data collection ranged for two weeks from May 10, 2002 though May 24, 2002. The method of data collection depended upon the utilization of a self-filling-up questionnaire, questionnaire forms were distributed to the study subjects and withdrawn from them. The collected data were computerized using the SPSS/PC+ program. Results were revealed as follows: 1) The respondents showed a high cognition of the Nursing care role orientation. Job characteristics represented a high cognition of the significance of task (11.02) and feedback (10.23) but a low cognition of autonomy (9.17) and the variety of skill (8.30). A high response was disclosed of the intention of turnover by 14.52. One of the most greatest causes to take turnover into consideration was principally attributed to irregular working hours. 2) As for Nursing care role orientation in relation to the general characteristics of the study subjects, a high response was reflected from married status than single, a high academic career, a new nurse with less than one year of experience, an operation room. Autonomy/research factors, a subvariable of Nursing care role orientation, revealed a significant difference by working experience. As for work experience, the highest cognition of orientation was shown in new nurses with less than one year of experience. Collaborationn, a subvariable of role definition, revealed a significant difference by economic conditions, regards economic conditions, the medium degree showed the highest collaboration factor. Job characteristics not presented a statistically significant difference. But, subvariable of job characteristics, the variety of skill was significant in working departments, high cognition came in order of operation units, internal medicine and surgeries. Task identity did not disclose any significant variables and the significance of task was of the highest cognition among the respondents''s duties. What showed a statistically significant difference here was their working experience and department, as for work experience, the highest cognition of task significance was shown in new nurses with less than one year of experience and as for workplaces the highest cognition shown in order of ob&gyn/children units, intensive care units, emergency care units, internal medicine and surgeries. Furthermore, autonomy did not show any statistical significance but the Finally, feedback pointed out statistic significance in work experience and working departments. The higher their work experience, the higher feedback they showed, along with the highest feebback in ob&gyn/children units. 3) General characteristics and the intention of turnover represented a significant difference in work experience and academic careers. The highest intention of turnover came from one to two years, with the highest intention from college graduates. However, Institutions higher than graduate schools gave a low intention of turnover but the highest intention of turnover from one type to another type of occupation. 4)Correlations among Nursing care role orientation, job characteristics and the intention of turnover indicated that when Nursing care role orientation was on the increase, the intention of turnover was on the decrease but little correlation. Job characteristics factors did not point to statistically significance with the intention of turnover. However, the lowest intention of turnover was shown from those new nurses with less than one year of experience, while the lowest job specificity from the academic career higher than postgraduate courses with the highest intention of change of occupation to another type. As aforementioned, inasmuch as the intention of turnover and work experience reflected significant difference, it is needed to develop differentiated efficient educational programs varying with experience and prosecute follow-up studies of multilateral methods of the function of the working system in which turnover is functioned as one of the greatest factors.
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4. Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) > Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) > 2. Thesis
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/127950
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