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Nail shop 근무자의 휘발성 유기화합물 (VOCs) 노출평가

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 Individual exposure assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) in Nail Shop Workers 
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[한글] 연구 목적: 네일숍의 휘발성 유기화합물 (volatile organic compounds, VOCs)의 개인노출량의 측정 및 분석방법을 확립하고 네일숍 근무자들의 VOCs에 대한 노출량을 확인하여 일반적 특성과 업무적 특성을 조사하여 특성에 따른 노출량을 평가한다. 연구 대상 및 방법: 서울(10곳), 경기(3곳) 및 인천(2곳)의 네일숍을 대상으로 조사하며, 사전 조사를 진행하여 노출되는 화학물질을 확인하였고, 본 조사를 진행하여 15곳의 네일숍에서 31명의 근무자들에 대해 노출 조사 및 설문조사를 실시하였다. 연구 결과: 네일숍의 평균 이용자는 19.7명, 평균 근무자는 4명, 평균 연령은 26세, 평균 근무 경력은 30개월, 근속월수는 13.26개월이었다. 평균 근무시간은 10시간, 평균 시술 수는 6.74명, 평균 숍 면적은 90.6 m3이었다. 사람이 많은 시간 때인 저녁에 일산화탄소는 외부 농도보다 1.6배, 이산화탄소는 외부 농도보다 1.3배 높았다. 총 먼지는 오전이 외부보다 1.2배 높았다. 개인노출농도를 평가한 결과 근무 후에 비해 근무 중에서 개인노출 농도가 1.63배-7.86배 높았으며, 근무 중 평균 농도가 ethyl acetate 1.178 ppm, benzene 0.004 ppm, n-propyl acetate 0.16 5ppm, toluene 0.157 ppm, n-butyl acetate 0.433 ppm, ethyl benzene 0.012 ppm, xylene 0.019 ppm이었다. 네일숍 근무자들의 입주형태, 개점 년 수, 문 형태, 시술횟수, 지상/지하의 특성에 따라 VOCs 농도와 통계학적으로 유의한 차이를 확인할 수 있었으며, 체적대비 ethyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, 이산화탄소, 온도, 습도가 높았다. 결론 및 제언: 좁은 면적의 숍에서 근무자의 수와 이용자들의 증가는 실내 유해물질의 농도를 증가시켰으며, 이산화탄소와 온도는 면적대비 사람 수에 비해 증가하였다. 소규모의 네일숍 근무자들은 실내에서 근무하고 화학물질에 노출되며 적은 환기와 이용자들의 증가에 따라 누적노출량이 증가되기 때문에 근무환경에 대한 개선이 필요하며 작업방법에 따라 노출을 최소화할 수 있는 방안이 마련되어야 한다.
[영문] The purpose of this study is to determine the individual exposure concentration of VOC in nail shop workers through various analysis techniques. The investigation on the exposure concentration will help to better characterize the general as well as the working environment. The study was carried out in Seoul (10 locations), Kyunggi (3 locations), and Incheon (2 locations) in order to determine the level of chemical exposure. A total of 31 nail shop workers were surveyed during this study. The protocol (3M, 1991) recommended by 3M was used for the preparation of VOCs analysis and the HP6890 GC/MS (Hewlett Packard, USA) was utilized as sample. The statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 12.0 for windows package. The results demonstrated that the average number of visitors, workers, age, working experience, working month were 19.7, 4, 26, 30 months, and 13.26 months respectively. The average amount of working hour was 10 hours, average number of visitors per worker was 6.74, and the average area of nail shop was 90.6m3.. During the busiest evening hours, the concentration of carbon monoxide was 1.6 times higher and, carbon dioxide was 1.3 times higher in the nail shop compared to the outdoor environment. In contrast, the concentration of total dust was 1.2 times higher in the indoor during the morning hours. The analysis on the individual exposure concentration was as small as 1.63 times and as large as 7.86 times higher during the working hours compared to the after working hours. Moreover, the average concentration of ethyl acetate, benzene, n-propyl acetate, toluene, n-butyl acetate, ethyl benzene, and xylene were 1.178, 0.004, 0.165, 0.157, 0.433, 0.012 and 0.019 ppm respectively during the working hours. Significant differences were observed in the concentration of volatile VOC depending on the specific location of the shop, time since opening, location of the door, number of operation, and altitudinal differences, in which the concentration of ethylacetate, n-butylacetate, carbondioxide, temperature and humidity were found to be the highest per area. The study revealed that the increasing number of workers as well as the visitors with decreasing shop area increase the concentration of indoor VOC; whereas, the concentration of carbon dioxide, and temperature escalate at a faster rate in relation to the area of nail shop. It is predicted that the nail shop workers working in a restricted environment with limited ventilation are likely exposed to high concentration of VOC and constantly faced with accumulated exposure, especially with increasing number of users. It is, therefore, suggested to improve the working environment and determine ways to reduce the risk of exposure depending on the type of job.
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