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한국농촌에 있어서의 가족계획 효과에 관한 연구

Other Titles
 Acceptance and effectiveness of contraceptive service in rural Korea 
Issue Date


It is known that the Korea is now one of the countries having national policies

and programs in support of family planning and giving high priority to developing

the program through the health center net work.

Since the public health responsibility for family planning is a new development

in Korea, efficient programming of family planning service requires adequate

knowledge and experience based on the actual practice of contraceptive methods in

Korean community, especially in a rural setting.

To provide such information, it is fortunate for us that starting in 1962 an

action type research program made possible through a generous grant of the

Population Council, New York, is now being conducted by Yonsei University College

of Medicine in the rural area of Koyang, Korea.

The overall objective of the Koyang project is to demonstrate and evaluate the

possiblity of reducing the birth rate through family planning education and


The area chosen for the study was Wondang Myun(township), Koyang Gun(county)

which is located 13 miles north of Seoul and has about 9,000 inhabitants in 7

villages, Kimpo Myun, having a population of about 12,000 in seven villages has

been designated as the control area for a comparative study. For an unbiased

appraisal of any anticipated change in the study area, a comparable area with a

similar population but without our program is mandatory. Kimpo Myun is located 20

miles west of Seoul and separated from the study area by the Han River.

The study began with a baseline survey of information, attitudes and practices

related to family planning in September, 1962, in both the experimental and the

control area.

Following the baseline survey, intensive educational and clinical sevices were to

begin in the study area only from October, 1962.

Also the first evaluation of our program, a brief re-interview of the same

respindents contacted in the first sample survey was scheduled for both areas

during the winter of 1963 in order to observe what changes had occurred in

fertility rate and in the practice of conception control during this one year

period of the program.

From the start of the action program in October 1962 to March 1964, a total of

620 couples participated in the contraceptive sevices of the Koyang Family Planning

Study Project. This figure represents 45% of the total number of 1,357 women 15-14

years of age living with their husbands in the study area as of December 31, 1963.

As experience in other areas, acceptance occurred most often among couples with 3

or more children (74.2%).

Out of 620 participants about 74% or 461 were classified as users on March 1964,

and 26% or 159 subsequently discontinued use with various reasons; 68(11%) did so

because of accidental pregnancy, 30(4.8%) wanted baby, 21(3.1%) contraception

abandoned, 30(4.8%) moved away, and 2(0.3%) not contacted.

About 70% of the 461 active users (including readmission of 43 women out of 111

women who were accidentally pregnant once or more) have been practicing for 6

months or more at the end of observation.

Of 620 participants in the project, 313 or 50.4% accepted only one of the two

methods (condom and foam tablet) offered through the period of study; 263 couples

relied on condom, 50 on foam tablets. Of those who tried more than one of the

prescribed method, 251 couples used two, and 56 couples three or more methods.

The subsequent methods found to have been practiced by the participating couples

at the last observation were condom 395(63.7%), foam tablet 93(15%), condom and

foam tablet 89(14.4%), rhythm combined with other methods 19(3.1%) and other

methods 24(3.8%). Therefore, their preference for condom is clear, and this means

that the practice of contraception is now under the leadership of husbands, even

though the contraceptive supplies were introduced by wives into the home through

female family planning workers.

The pregnancy rate of 62 before registration declined to 30 while the

participating couples were under observation. This reduction of about 50% indicates

no more than the 1st stage of contraception endeavour but a low order of efficiency

in comparison with the studies in other countries.

Even though pregnancy rate with use of condom was lower than that with other

methods combined, the higher level of those in general suggest that all methods

offered were used irregularly or not according to instructions.

While 388 or 62.5% of users(620) reported as regular users(no omission of use at

any time), it is common, as experienced in other studies, that many couples failed

to admit irregularity in use until the wife has become pregnant. While no great

confidence can be placed, the distribution of accidental pregnancies ere classified

according to the explanation given by the participants.

The most weight to those who associated conception with omission and irregular

use (555%) was claimed mainly husband's objection in use of condom.

We introduced and encouraged the use of simple traditional contraceptives and

assessed their effectiveness in reducing the birth rate, the foam tablet and condom

methods were recommended as first choies for trial. However, our field workers

explained to the villagers all five proven contraceptive methods and asked them to

choose freely among them. All contraceptive supplies were provided free of charge.

In order to assess our action program for about one year, the comparative or

evaluation study, previously mentioned, was carried out by re-interviewing the same

wife contacted during the baseline survey in both the control and the study areas.

At this re-survey, only 448 or 91.2% of 491 wives in Wondang and 415 or 86.8% of

478 of the wives in Kimpo who had been previously contacted interviewed. The sample

loss was mainly due to move-outs from the area(about 10%).

It is interesting to note that about 80% of the respondents in both areas, stated

they were informed of the family planning program. When asked who had explained the

program to them it was found that while the family planning worker was the major

source of information in both areas, the women workers were also mentioned as the

source by about one third of the respondents in the control area. However, in

actual practice of conception control, the percentage of acceptors increased about

4 time in the study area in comparisom with the first survey. Also, the acceptors

were found to have increased two times in the control area.

In examining the proportion of contraceptive methods currently practicing the

users of foam tablet have somewhat decreased but remained at the 20% level in both

areas, while the proportion of condom users have increased 4 times in the study

area as well as in the control area.

Asked the reasons for practicing family planning, about two-thirds of the

acceptors mentioned the economic problems especially in raising and educating

children. It is true that the general public are becoming increasingly conscious of

the necessity to limit the number of their children due to the preasure of various

socio-economic factors such as poverty and social enlightenment.

In the reason given for not having practiced family planning, a desire for more

children especially for sons was the most prominent factor.

It may be too early to assess the effects of our Action Program at this stage in

terms of birth rate, but the vital data collected by the 1st and 2nd surveys of the

sampling households could provide some indication in the birth rate in both areas.

In the study area, the crude birth index was changed from 42 to 32 while the index

in the control area 40 to 34. Even though such difference in rates is still

subjects to sampling error, it can be said that the difference between the 1st year

birth rate and the 2nd year rate in Wondang is statistically significant at 95%

confidence level. Whether such a decrease is due to the contraceptive practice

and/or induced abortion is subject to further evaluation.

Also, the downward trend of birth rate in the control area leads us to the

assumption that the Korean birth rate is not at lease increasing by family

limitation including induced abortion and conrtaceptive methods for the past years.
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