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용해직(고온작업환경) 근무자의 땀분비에 관한 실험적 연구

Issue Date
1982
Description
의학과/박사
Abstract
[한글] 땀은 체온이나 기온이 상승함에 따라 그 분비가 증가되고 분비된 땀이 피부에서 증발함 으로서 체온조절에 큰 역할을 담당하고 있다. 이러한 땀분비는 인종, 기후, 계절에 따라 차이가 있으며(Strydom 및 Wyndham, 1963), 고온에 노출되어 일정기간 지나면 땀분비가 증가하고 작업능률이 향상되고 고통스러운 증 상이 없어지는 순화현상(acclimatization)을 볼 수 있다(Robinson등, 1943; Taylor 등, 1 943; Kuno, 1956; Allan 및 Wilson, 1971). 순화현상은 열자극에 의하여 피부온도가 올라가면 활성화된 한선의 수가 증가하여 일어 나는 국소훈련현상(local training phenomenon)에 의한 것이다(Fox 등, 1964; Collins 등 , 1966; Allan 및 Wilson, 1971). 또한 고온환경에 순화되면 땀분비가 증가할 뿐만 아니라 직장 및 피부온도의 증가폭이 적어지고 (Robinson 등, 1943; Taylor 등, 1943; Bass 등, 1955; Lind 및 Bass, 1963), 땀의 Na 농도도 aldosterone 분비가 증가하여 한관에서 Na 재흡수를 증가시켜 낮아진다고 하였다(Allan 및 Wilson, 1971). 이러한 순화현상에 관한 연구는 대부분이 단기간 고온에 노출시켜 순화시킨후 관찰한 것이다. 저자는 고온에 장기간 노출된 사람에서 땀분비에 어떤 차이가 있는지 관찰코저, 고온작업환경인 용해직 근무자 14명을 대상으로 하여 겨울철인 1월에 건구온도 46℃, 습 구온도 37℃되는 Environ-Room에서 한시간동안 땀을 분비케 하고, 땀분비량, 땀의 Na 농 도, 피부 및 직장온도, 심박동수의 변화를 관찰하고 같은 방법으로 상온 작업환경인 청소 부 10명, 저온작업환경인 냉동실 근무자 20명의 성적과 비교하여 다음과 같은 결론을 얻 었다. 1) 땀분비는 모든 군에서 시간이 지남에 따라 점차 증가하여 45분에 가장 많았고 이후 점차 감소하는 경향을 보였으며 좌우측의 차이는 없었다. 한시간 동안의 땀분비량을 보면 대조군과 저온작업환경군 간에는 차이가 없었고 고온작 업환경군에서 현저히 증가함을 볼 수 있었다. 2) 땀의 Na농도는 모든 군에서 땀분비량이 많으면 그 농도도 높았으나 대조군에 비하여 고온 작업 환경군은 땀분비량이 현저히 많음에도 Na 농도는 낮았다. 3) 피부온도는 모든 군에서 첫 30분에 급격히 증가하고 이후 서서히 증가하였고 그 증 가폭은 대조군에 비하여 저온작업환경군에서 의의있는 증가를 보였다. 4) 직장온도는 모든 군에서 처음부터 서서히 증가하였고 고온작업환경군에서 가장 적은 증가폭을 보였고 적은 증가폭에도 불구하고 대조군이나 저온작업환경군보다 땀분비가 더 급격히 증가함을 볼 수 있었다. 5) 심박동수는 고온작업환경군에서 가장 큰 증가율을 보였으나 각 실험군간에 의의있는 차이는 없었다.
[영문] A number of investigators have studied the physiological changes associated with heat acclimatization. Fox et al (1963a,b) found an increased sweat production, a lower pulse rate, lower skin and deep body temperatures, and less discomfort during heat exposure after heat acclimatization. Peter and Wyndham (1966) observed that the decline in sweat rates on prolonged exposure to heat is attributed to fatigue of the secretory cells of sweat glands. According to Con (1963), after heat acclimatization the secretion of aldosterone increases and then is followed by an increase in the reabsorption of sodium in ductal cells of eccrine sweat glands causing a decrease in sodium concentration of sweat. Sigal and Dobson (1968) reported that subjects receiving a low sodium intake have a consistently lower rate of sweat sodium excretion than subjects receiving a high salt intake. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the sweat secretion, sodium concentration of sweat, skin and rectal temperatures and pulse rates in the hot environmental workers (Furnace workers) compared to normals and cold environmental workers. Materials and Methods: Fourteen furnace workers were selected as the hot environmental group(working environment: 38℃), 10 subjects as a control group(working environment: room temperature), and 20 freezer workers as the cold environmental group(working environment: -20℃). The experiment was performed in January during the winter season. An Environ-Room (dry bulb 46℃, wet bulb 37℃; Lab-Line Insc. Int. Melrose Park, Ⅲ) was used for the sweat secretion test and sweat was collected on both forearms with sweat collector designed by Sato and Dobson (1969) every 15 minutes for 1 hour (mg/4.91 cm**2). Sodium concentration of sweat was analyzed with a flame photometer(mEq/l). Skin temperature was measured with a telethermometer and rectal temperature was measured by an indwelling thermister probe very 15 minutes for 1 hour. Pulse rates were counted at the wrist every 15 minutes for 1 hour. Summary and Conclusion: 1. During the experiment, sweat secretions in all subjects increased until 45 minutes, but decreased thereafter and there was no difference in the amount of sweat from the right and left forearms. The amount of sweat from the right forearm was more markedly increased in the hot environmental group (172.4 mg/4.91 cm**2/hr) than in the control group (116.4 mg/4.91 cm**2/hr) and the cold environmental group (118.7 mg/4.91 cm**2/hr). 2. Na concentrations of sweat were 87.8 mEq/l in control group, 80.7 mEq/l in the hot environmental group, and 75.5 mEq/l in the cold environmental group but there was no statistical significance. na concentration of sweat was higher in subjects who had high sweat rates than in subjects who had lower sweat rates. But in the hot environmental group, the sodium concentration was relatively low in spite of a higher sweat rate than in the control group. 3. Skin temperatures were markedly increased in the first 30 minutes in all groups and the increment of skin temperature in the cold environment group (5.01℃/hr) was significant compared to the control group (4.57℃/hr). 4. Rectal temperatures increased slowly throughout the experiments in all groups, and the increments of rectal temperature were lowest in the hot environmental group (0.67℃/hr) in spite of a higher sweat rate compared to the control (0.76℃/hr) and cold environmental groups (0.81℃/hr). 5. Pulse rates were increased more in the hot environmental group (38.5%/hr) than in the control (27.6%/hr) and cold environmental groups (33.7%/hr), but there was no statistical significance between the groups.
URI
http://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/115259
Appears in Collections:
2. 학위논문 > 1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > 박사
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