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Contrasting Roles of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Cellular Entry and Replication of Hepatitis C Virus: MKNK1 Facilitates Cell Entry

 Seungtaek Kim  ;  Hisashi Ishida  ;  Daisuke Yamane  ;  MinKyung Yi  ;  David C. Swinney  ;  Steven Foung  ;  Stanley M. Lemon 
 Journal of Virology, Vol.87(8) : 4214-4224, 2013 
Journal Title
 Journal of Virology 
Issue Date
The human kinome comprises over 800 individual kinases. These contribute in multiple ways to regulation of cellular metabolism and may have direct and indirect effects on virus replication. Kinases are tempting therapeutic targets for drug development, but achieving sufficient specificity is often a challenge for chemical inhibitors. While using inhibitors to assess whether c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) kinases regulate hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication, we encountered unexpected off-target effects that led us to discover a role for a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-related kinase, MAPK interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 (MKNK1), in viral entry. Two JNK inhibitors, AS601245 and SP600125, as well as RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of JNK1 and JNK2, enhanced replication of HCV replicon RNAs as well as infectious genome-length RNA transfected into Huh-7 cells. JNK knockdown also enhanced replication following infection with cell-free virus, suggesting that JNK actively restricts HCV replication. Despite this, AS601245 and SP600125 both inhibited viral entry. Screening of a panel of inhibitors targeting kinases that may be modulated by off-target effects of AS601245 and SP600125 led us to identify MKNK1 as a host factor involved in HCV entry. Chemical inhibition or siRNA knockdown of MKNK1 significantly impaired entry of genotype 1a HCV and HCV-pseudotyped lentiviral particles (HCVpp) in Huh-7 cells but had only minimal impact on viral RNA replication or cell proliferation and viability. We propose a model by which MKNK1 acts to facilitate viral entry downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), both of which have been implicated in the entry process.
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1. Journal Papers (연구논문) > 1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > BioMedical Science Institute (의생명과학부)
Yonsei Authors
김승택(Kim, Seung Taek)
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