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Virtual dissection of the real brain: integration of photographic 3D models into virtual reality and its effect on neurosurgical resident education

 Tae Hoon Roh  ;  Ji Woong Oh  ;  Chang Ki Jang  ;  Seonah Choi  ;  Eui Hyun Kim  ;  Chang-Ki Hong  ;  Se-Hyuk Kim 
 NEUROSURGICAL FOCUS, Vol.51(2) : E16, 2021-08 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Brain ; Dissection ; Humans ; Internship and Residency* ; Skull / surgery ; Virtual Reality* ; LinkOut - m
anatomical models ; cadavers ; medical education ; neurosurgery ; simulation ; virtual reality
Objective: Virtual reality (VR) is increasingly being used for education and surgical simulation in neurosurgery. So far, the 3D sources for VR simulation have been derived from medical images, which lack real color. The authors made photographic 3D models from dissected cadavers and integrated them into the VR platform. This study aimed to introduce a method of developing a photograph-integrated VR and to evaluate the educational effect of these models.

Methods: A silicone-injected cadaver head was prepared. A CT scan of the specimen was taken, and the soft tissue and skull were segmented to 3D objects. The cadaver was dissected layer by layer, and each layer was 3D scanned by a photogrammetric method. The objects were imported to a free VR application and layered. Using the head-mounted display and controllers, the various neurosurgical approaches were demonstrated to neurosurgical residents. After performing hands-on virtual surgery with photographic 3D models, a feedback survey was collected from 31 participants.

Results: Photographic 3D models were seamlessly integrated into the VR platform. Various skull base approaches were successfully performed with photograph-integrated VR. During virtual dissection, the landmark anatomical structures were identified based on their color and shape. Respondents rated a higher score for photographic 3D models than for conventional 3D models (4.3 ± 0.8 vs 3.2 ± 1.1, respectively; p = 0.001). They responded that performing virtual surgery with photographic 3D models would help to improve their surgical skills and to develop and study new surgical approaches.

Conclusions: The authors introduced photographic 3D models to the virtual surgery platform for the first time. Integrating photographs with the 3D model and layering technique enhanced the educational effect of the 3D models. In the future, as computer technology advances, more realistic simulations will be possible.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Neurosurgery (신경외과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Eui Hyun(김의현) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2523-7122
Oh, Ji Woong(오지웅)
Jang, Chang Ki(장창기) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8715-8844
Hong, Chang Ki(홍창기) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2761-0373
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