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Role of DPP-4 and SGLT2 Inhibitors Connected to Alzheimer Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors
 A Young Sim 1 2  ;  Sumit Barua 1  ;  Jong Youl Kim 1  ;  Yong-Ho Lee 3  ;  Jong Eun Lee 1 2 4 
Citation
 FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE, Vol.15 : 708547, 2021-08 
Journal Title
FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE
ISSN
 1662-4548 
Issue Date
2021-08
Keywords
Alzheimer’s disease ; DPP-4 inhibitor ; SGLT2 inhibitor ; insulin resistance ; insulin signaling ; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Abstract
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline. Additionally, abnormal extracellular amyloid plaques accumulation and nerve damage caused by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and tau protein are characteristic of AD. Furthermore, AD is associated with oxidative stress, impaired mitochondrial structure and function, denormalization, and inflammatory responses. Recently, besides the amyloid β hypothesis, another hypothesis linking AD to systemic diseases has been put forth by multiple studies as a probable cause for AD. Particularly, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its features, including hyperinsulinemia, and chronic hyperglycemia with an inflammatory response, have been shown to be closely related to AD through insulin resistance. The brain cannot synthesize or store glucose, but it does require glucose, and the use of glucose in the brain is higher than that in any other organ in the mammalian body. One of the therapeutic drugs for T2DM, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, suppresses the degradation of incretins, glucagon-like peptides and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, recently used in T2DM treatment, have a unique mechanism of action via inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption, and which is different from the mechanisms of previously used medications. This manuscript reviews the pathophysiological relationship between the two diseases, AD and T2DM, and the pharmacological effects of therapeutic T2DM drugs, especially DPP-4 inhibitors, and SGLT2 inhibitors.
Files in This Item:
T202105367.pdf Download
DOI
10.3389/fnins.2021.708547
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Anatomy (해부학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Jong Youl(김종열) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8340-2894
Lee, Yong Ho(이용호) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6219-4942
Lee, Jong Eun(이종은) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6203-7413
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/187248
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