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Double mandibular foramen leading to the accessory canal on the mandibular ramus

 Young-Yuhn Choi  ;  Sang-Sun Han 
 SURGICAL AND RADIOLOGIC ANATOMY, Vol.36(9) : 851-855, 2014 
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Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; Female ; Humans ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional ; Male ; Mandible/abnormalities* ; Mandible/diagnostic imaging* ; Middle Aged ; Young Adult
PURPOSE: The knowledge of the variation in the mandibular foramen and canal is clinically significant in surgical procedures of the mandible. This study aims to evaluate the anatomical characteristics of double mandibular foramen leading to the accessory canal on the mandibular ramus using cone beam CT. METHODS: The sagittal, cross-sectional, and three-dimensional images of cone beam CT data from 446 patients were evaluated in the presence of double mandibular foramen and the accessory canal passing through the foramen. The accessory canals were classified into two types according to the configuration (forward and retromolar type), and the location of double mandibular foramen was recorded. RESULTS: The eight double mandibular foramina leading to the accessory canals were observed in six patients out of 446 patients (1.35 % of population). Regarding the configuration of the accessory canal, there were two forward types and six retromolar types. All double mandibular foramina were located above the mandibular foramina on the medial aspect of the mandibular ramus. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional images of cone beam CT data are useful in confirming the presence of double mandibular foramen leading to the accessory canal. The variation may cause failure in the routine mandibular nerve block anesthesia and it is often vulnerable during surgical procedures involving the mandibular ramus. Also, double mandibular foramen is considered as an easy route for tumor cell to spread following the radiotherapy. Therefore, the variation should be carefully investigated using reconstructed cone beam CT images in planning of dental surgery or radiotherapy in the mandible.
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2. College of Dentistry (치과대학) > Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (영상치의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Han, Sang Sun(한상선) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1775-7862
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