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Motor cortex stimulation and neuropathic pain: how does motor cortex stimulation affect pain-signaling pathways?

 Jinhyung Kim  ;  Sang Baek Ryu  ;  Sung Eun Lee  ;  Jaewoo Shin  ;  Hyun Ho Jung  ;  Sung June Kim  ;  Kyung Hwan Kim  ;  Jin Woo Chang 
 JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY, Vol.124(3) : 866-876, 2016 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Animals ; Deep Brain Stimulation* ; Disease Models, Animal ; Motor Cortex* ; Neuralgia/etiology* ; Neuralgia/therapy* ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Serotonin/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/physiology* ; Ventral Thalamic Nuclei
18F-FDG = 2-deoxy-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose ; GABA = gamma-aminobutyric acid ; LCP = liquid crystal polymer ; MCS = motor cortex stimulation ; PAG = periaqueductal gray ; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline ; ROI = region of interest ; VPL = ventral posterolateral nucleus ; ZI = zona incerta ; artifact removal ; electrophysiology ; mPET = micro-PET ; microPET ; motor cortex stimulation ; neuropathic pain ; rat model
OBJECTIVE: Neuropathic pain is often severe. Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is used for alleviating neuropathic pain, but the mechanism of action is still unclear. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of action of MCS by investigating pain-signaling pathways, with the expectation that MCS would regulate both descending and ascending pathways.

METHODS: Neuropathic pain was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Surface electrodes for MCS were implanted in the rats. Tactile allodynia was measured by behavioral testing to determine the effect of MCS. For the pathway study, immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate changes in c-fos and serotonin expression; micro-positron emission tomography (mPET) scanning was performed to investigate changes of glucose uptake; and extracellular electrophysiological recordings were performed to demonstrate brain activity.

RESULTS: MCS was found to modulate c-fos and serotonin expression. In the mPET study, altered brain activity was observed in the striatum, thalamic area, and cerebellum. In the electrophysiological study, neuronal activity was increased by mechanical stimulation and suppressed by MCS. After elimination of artifacts, neuronal activity was demonstrated in the ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) during electrical stimulation. This neuronal activity was effectively suppressed by MCS.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that MCS effectively attenuated neuropathic pain. MCS modulated ascending and descending pain pathways. It regulated neuropathic pain by affecting the striatum, periaqueductal gray, cerebellum, and thalamic area, which are thought to regulate the descending pathway. MCS also appeared to suppress activation of the VPL, which is part of the ascending pathway.

KEYWORDS: 18F-FDG = 2-deoxy-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose; GABA = gamma-aminobutyric acid; LCP = liquid crystal polymer; MCS = motor cortex stimulation; PAG = periaqueductal gray; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline; ROI = region of interest; VPL = ventral posterolateral nucleus; ZI = zona incerta; artifact removal; electrophysiology; mPET = micro-PET; microPET; motor cortex stimulation; neuropathic pain; rat model
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Neurosurgery (신경외과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Shin, Jaewoo(신재우) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6335-1292
Chang, Jin Woo(장진우) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2717-0101
Jung, Hyun Ho(정현호)
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