Presence of glioma stroma mesenchymal stem cells in a murine orthotopic glioma model.
Sang-Mok Kim ; Seok-Gu Kang ; Frederick F. Lang ; Chun-Kun Park ; Yong-Kil Hong ; Sin-Soo Jeun ; Su-Jae Lee ; Yong-Min Huh ; Hyun-Su Mok ; Na-Ri Park
Childs Nervous System, Vol.27(6) : 911~922, 2011
Childs Nervous System
PURPOSE: High-grade gliomas are closely related to the mesenchymal phenotype which might be explained by unorthodox differentiation of glioma cancer stem cells (gCSCs). We reasoned that other non-neural stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), might play a role in expressing mesenchymal phenotype of high-grade gliomas. Thus we hypothesized that cells resembling MSCs exist in glioma specimens.
METHODS: We created a mouse (m) orthotopic glioma model using human gCSCs. Single-cell suspensions were isolated from glioma specimens and cultured according to the methods for mMSCs or gliomaspheres. These cells were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for surface markers associated with mMSCs or gCSCs. Glioma stroma (GS)-MSCs were exposed to mesenchymal differentiation conditions. To decide the location of GS-MSCs, sections of orthotopic glioma models were analyzed by immunofluorescent labeling.
RESULTS: GS-MSCs were isolated which were morphologically similar to mMSCs. FACS analysis showed that the GS-MSCs had similar surface markers to mMSCs (stem cell antigen-1 [Sca-1](+), CD9(+), CD45(-), CD11b(-), CD31(-), and nerve/glial antigen 2 [NG2](-)). GS-MSCs were capable of mesenchymal differentiation. Immunofluorescent labeling indicated that GS-MSCs are located around blood vessels, are distinct from endothelial cells, and have features that partially overlap with vascular pericytes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that cells similar to mMSCs exist in glioma specimens. The GS-MSCs might be located around vessels, which suggests that GS-MSCs may provide the mesenchymal elements of the vascular niche. GS-MSCs may represent non-neural stem cells that act as an important source of mesenchymal elements, particularly during the growth of gliomas.