Journal of the Korean Medical Association, Vol.54(11) : 1179~1188, 2011
Procedural sedation and analgesia are now becoming more frequently required and
procedural safety is one of the main interests of private clinic physicians. Efforts to establish
safe sedation and analgesia include patient assessment to avoid sedating patients with risk
factors, training for drug administration, airway management, and treatment of adverse effects,
proper preparation of monitoring and resuscitation equipments and recovery facility, thorough
recording of the sedation process as well as the procedure itself, analysis of results and quality
assessment. Complications during procedural sedation and analgesia, including nausea and
vomiting, respiratory depression, hypoxia and even cardiac arrest, should be prevented and properly
treated. In this review, basic requirements for procedural sedation and analgesia are to be
described, such as sedatives/analgesics including propofol, midazolam, ketamine, etomidate
and dexmedetomidine, and airway management with ventilatory support for respiratory depression.
Most of all, proper education and repeated training for airway management with ventilatory
support and cardiopulmonary resuscitation are critically important for all the personnel involving
the procedural sedation and analgesia.