The assessment of routine electroencephalography in patients with altered mental status.
Kwon Duk Seo ; Young-Chul Choi ; Won-Joo Kim
Yonsei Medical Journal, Vol.52(6) : 933~938, 2011
Yonsei Medical Journal
PURPOSE: Changes in electroencephalography (EEG) patterns may offer a clue to the cause of altered mental status and suggest the prognoses of patients with such mental status. We aimed to identify the EEG patterns in patients with altered mental status and to correlate EEG findings with clinical prognoses.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 105 patients with altered mental status who underwent EEG. EEG and clinical chart reviews with ongoing patient follow-ups were performed to determine the clinical prognosis of the patients. Clinical data were sorted using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). EEG findings were classified according to a method suggested by Scollo-Lavizzari. The EEGs were analyzed to find out whether any correlation existed with the prognoses of patients. Results: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) was detected in only three patients (2.9%). Specific EEG patterns were observed in 28 patients. Twenty-nine (27.6%) patients expired, and 45 (42.9%) patients were in a vegetative state. EEG grade and GCS significantly correlated with GOS. EEG grade alone had a correlation with GCS. Patients with a severe EEG finding had a poor prognosis.
CONCLUSION: EEG findings reflect the mental status of patients, and EEG grades are correlated with the clinical prognosis of patients. Although EEG is not frequently performed on patients with altered mental state, it can play a supplemental role in establishing a prognosis. Thus, the use of EEG should be emphasized in clinical setting.