PURPOSE: We investigated the relationship between allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergen sensitization in students at an elementary school in Seoul. METHODS: A modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire survey was administered to 1,376 elementary school children in the Songpa area of Seoul. Serum total IgE, blood eosinophils, and skin prick tests for 18 common allergens were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of AR symptoms during the last 12 months and the current AR, defined as having AR symptoms during last 12 months with a history of AR diagnosis from the doctor, were 39.0% and 24.2%, respectively. Males were more likely to have current AR than females (26.6% vs. 21.5%, P =0.04). Independent risk factors for current AR were parental allergic disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.78, 95% CI, 2.76-5.18), history of atopic dermatitis (AD; aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05-2.04), history of asthma (aOR, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.15-5.61), and higher maternal education (aOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-1.99). The subjects with higher quartiles of serum total IgE (P value for trend <0.001), more than 4% of eosinophil fraction (aOR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.24-2.48), and allergen sensitization house dust mites [aOR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.10-2.15], dog [aOR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.38-6.28], cat [1.85; 95% CI, 1.02-3.34], Alternaria [aOR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.06-5.32] and late-blooming tree pollen mixture [aOR 2.26; 95% CI, 1.12-4.57] were more likely to have current AR. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AR in children has increased during the last decade. The sensitization to common allergens and increased sensitization were associated with the development of current AR. House dust mites, dog, cat, alder, and Alternaria were the important allergens for current AR.