Association between ozone and emergency department visits: an ecological study.
Mona Choi ; Frank C. Curriero ; Jane Lipscomb ; Barbara Sattler ; Mary Etta C. Mills ; Meg Johantgen
International Journal of Environmental Health Research, Vol.21(3) : 201~221, 2011
International Journal of Environmental Health Research
The objective of this study was to examine the association between the levels of ozone concentration and emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory and cardiovascular conditions in Maryland in the United States by considering temporal and spatial characteristics, including socioeconomic status (SES), as a covariate. This study used multiple large datasets derived from government agencies for data of ozone, weather, census, and ED visits to represent Maryland in the summer of 2002. Block kriging was used to estimate the daily ozone and weather factors by ZIP code-day level. Results from a negative binomial regression showed that a 10-ppb increment of the 8-hr ozone level as a three-day average was associated with increased respiratory ED visits by 2.4%, after adjusting for weather factors, SES, and day of the week. For cardiovascular ED visits, an increment of 10 ppb of the 8-hr ozone level as a five-day average increased by 3.5%.