Review of psychosocial and psychosexual adjustment of Persons with Hypospadias and Their Parents
한국심리학회지: 건강, Vol.17(1) : 1~25, 2012
Thanks to medical research, we now have available effective surgical procedures for treating individuals with hypospadias. Despite the availability of such medical procedures, very little attention has been given towards examining psychosocial factors related to hypospadias, particularly those post-surgery that may be associated with positive follow-up and long-term patient outcomes. In the present paper, we reviewed published articles between 1966 and 2009 in order to identify relevant psychosocial functioning, psychosexual development and parent-related issues associated with hypospadias. Although few in number, research studies have shown that persons with hypospadias report lower levels of social competence, and higher social anxiety than normal controls. Accumulating psychosocial data have also shown that patient self-appraisal of genital appearance is a critical component of positive psychosocial outcomes, following a corrective procedure. Although it is difficult to make conclusive statements regarding the psychosexual adjustment among persons with hypospadias based on current research, it has been reported that persons with hypospadias tend to be less sexually active in relationships and less satisfied with their sex life and genital appearance. Their parents also show higher level of anxiety regarding their masculinity and display a tendency to discount their problem behaviors. Findings from the present review addresses the influences of psychosocial variables on hypospadias, which includes factors associated with positive psychological outcomes, as well as the benefits associated with utilizing this knowledge to increase psychological services, following medical surgical procedures for hypospadias.