Purpose: After damage control surgery, abdominal wall closure may be impossible due to increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP), and primary closure may induce abdominal compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the IAP and the feasibility of abdominal wall closure using artificial mesh. Methods: From July 2010 to July 2011, 8 patients with intra-abdominal hypertension underwent abdominal wall closure using artificial mesh. Medical data such as demographics, diagnosis, operation, IAP, postoperative complications, mortality and length of hospital stays were collected and reviewed, retrospectively. One patient was excluded because of inadequate measurement of the IAP. Results: Seven patients, 4 males and 3 females, were enrolled, and the mean age was 54.1 years old. Causes of operations were six traumatic abdominal injuries and one intra-abdominal infection. The IAP was reduced from 21.9±6.6 mmHg before opening the abdomen to 15.1±7.1 mmHg after fascial closure. Fascial closure was done on 14.9±17.5 days after the first operation. The mean lengths of the hospital and the intensive care unit (ICU) stays were 49.6 days and 29.7 days respectively. Operations were performed 3.1±1.5 times in all patients. Two patients expired, and one was transferred in a moribund state. Three patients suffered from complications, such as retroperitoneal abscesses, enterocutaneous fistulas, and bleeding that was related to the negative pressure wound therapy. Conclusion: After abdominal wall closure using artificial mesh, intra-abdominal pressure was well controlled, and abdominal compartment syndrome does not occur. When the abdominal wall in patients who have intra-abdominal hypertension is closed, artificial mesh may be useful for maintaining a lower abdominal pressure. However, when negative pressure wound therapy is used, the possibility of serious complications must be kept in mind.