BACKGROUND: This scientific statement is intended to provide a systematic review of new evidences in dyslipidemia and inflammation for primary stroke prevention. METHODS: Using a structured literature search, we identified major observational studies, clinical trials, meta-analyses, and updated major guidelines published between July 2007 and November 2010. In addition to the brief summary of earlier evidences employed in the first edition of Korean clinical practice guideline for primary prevention of stroke, we summarized the newly identified evidences. RESULTS: For dyslipidemia, observational studies further support a strong association between ischemic stroke and high total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Two clinical trials and 6 meta-analyses confirm statin efficacy for primary prevention of stroke in high risk patients. Efficacy of other lipid-lowering agents is not established. For inflammation, inflammatory markers might help to identify patients having high risk for stroke or cardiovascular event and to decide whether statin therapy is indicated, but its usefulness for broad population needs to be confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Writing committee will continue to keep an eye on upcoming evidences to timely update the guideline for primary stroke prevention in dyslipidemia and inflammation.