Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressive agent that is widely used in clinical therapy, including pancreas and islet transplantation. Previously, we showed that MPA induces significant apoptosis of insulin-secreting cells by downregulating RhoGDI-α and increasing JNK expression. In this study, we investigated Rac1 directly associated with RhoGDI-α during MPA-induced apoptosis in INS-1E cells (an insulin-secreting cell line). Cells were treated with MPA for 24 and 36 hours. Immunoprecipitation was used to examine physical interactions between RhoGDI-α and Rac1. Activation and immunoprecipitation assays showed expressions of Rac1 and RhoGDI-α to be directly correlated. Rac1 binding to RhoGDI-α decreased after MPA treatment, and Rac1 was induced and subsequently activated by MPA. We concluded that this novel RhoGDI-α/Rac1/JNK pathway induced apoptosis of transplanted islet cells after MPA treatment.