Many studies have explored the participation of cytokines and their genes in renal allograft rejection by using biopsy tissues. To screen for rejection, a biopsy is too invasive to perform without a clinical clue. Therefore, we studied the expression of cytokines that contribute to the early phase of allograft rejection by analyzing mRNA transcripts in sequential blood samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) 120 of 6 among patients transplanted before diagnosis of rejection. for comparison with 6 control recipients. The relative expression amount of cytokine genes encoding interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-15, and interferon-γ were assessed using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. IL-2, IL-4, and IL-15 mRNA expressions in clinically stable prerejection phase of the rejection group were significantly higher than those of the control group. In the prerejection samples, the expression of mRNA encoding IL-10 negatively correlated with the expressions of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-15 mRNAs, which were not different from the positive correlations in the postoperative samples from the control group. The expression patterns of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-15 genes in PBMCs after transplantation may help to identify acute rejection episodes before clinical deterioration to monitor the efficacy of immunosuppressive treatment.