Body fluid MMP-2 as a putative biomarker in metastatic breast cancer
SEWON NOH ; JAE-JOON JUNG ; SUN YOUNG RHA ; HEI‑CHEUL JEUNG ; TAE SOO KIM ; JOANNA CHO ; BRANDON WANG ; HA‑YOUNG ; KI-HYANG KIM ; MINKYU JUNG
Oncology Letters, Vol.3(3) : 699~703, 2012
In the present study, we investigated the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 as novel biomarkers in the body fluid of patients with metastatic breast cancer. We measured the expression of MMPs in 37 samples of body fluid (10 peritoneal and 27 pleural fluids) from metastatic breast cancer patients between 2000 and 2009. Zymography and ELISA assays were used to determine the cut-off level and to quantify MMP expression from a positive control, HT-1080 conditioned media. MMP expression in patient samples was measured with ELISA and compared with other clinical parameters. Ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and pleural CEA were measured in patient samples with a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Body fluid cytology had a positivity of 45% (9/20) for pleural fluid and 28.6% (2/7) for ascites. However, MMP-2 had a positivity of 85.2% (23/27) in 27 pleural fluid samples and 100% (10/10) in ascitic fluid with cut-off levels of 8.6 and 0.14 ng/ml for MMP-2 and -9, respectively. When body fluid CEA and MMP-2 were combined, the positivity improved to 96% in pleural fluid and 100% in ascites. MMP-2 expression in body fluid did not show any significant differences, but MMP-9 expression was lower in ascites than in pleural fluids (p<0.005). Our results suggest that MMP-2 expression in body fluid be used as an additive diagnostic marker for metastatic breast cancer patients.