Variations in dose distribution and optical properties of Gafchromic(TM) EBT2 film according to scanning mode.
Soah Park ; Sei-Kwon Kang ; Jin-Suck Suh ; Seung Jae Oh ; Jung Han Kim ; Hyeong Su Kim ; Hoonsik Bae ; KyoungJu Kim ; Me-Yeon Lee ; Taejin Han ; Haeyoung Kim ; Taejin Hwang ; Kwang-Ho Cheong
Medical Physics, Vol.39(5) : 2524~2535, 2012
PURPOSE: The authors aim was to investigate the effects of using transmission and reflection scanning modes, the film orientation during scanning, and ambient room light on a dosimetry system based on the Gafchromic(TM) EBT2 film model.
METHODS: For calibration, the films were cut to 3 × 3 cm(2) and irradiated from 20 to 700 cGy at the depth of maximum dose using 6 and 10 MV photon beams in a 10 × 10 cm(2) field size. Absolute dose calibration of the linear accelerator was done according to the TRS398 protocol. An FG65-G ionization chamber was used to monitor the dose while irradiating the films in solid water. The film pieces were scanned with an EPSON Expression 1680 Pro flatbed scanner in transmission and reflection modes. Authors investigated the effect of orientation on films and examined the optical properties of EBT2 film using an ellipsometer and an ultraviolet (UV)/visible spectrometer to explain the dosimetric dependence of the film on orientation during the scanning process. To investigate the effect of ambient room light, films were preirradiated in 6 and 10 MV photon beams with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) plans, and then exposed to room light, either directly for 2 days in a workroom or for 2 months in a film box. Gamma index pass criteria of (3%, 3 mm) were used.
RESULTS: The dose response curves based on net optical density (NOD) indicated that the reflection scanning mode can provide a better dose sensitivity than the transmission scanning mode, whereas the standard deviation of the dose is greater in reflection mode than in transmission mode. When the film was rotated 90° from the portrait orientation, the average dose of the EBT2 film decreased by 11.5-19.6% in transmission mode and by 1.5-2.3% in reflection mode. Using an ellipsometer, variation of the refractive index of EBT2 film-the birefringence property-was found to be the largest between 45° (1.72 and 1.71) and 135° (1.8 and 1.77) for 300 and 800 cGy. Absorption spectra of EBT2 films measured with spectrometer were the function of film orientation. The readings in reflection scanning mode were more stable against room light than those in transmission scanning mode, although dose readings increased in both modes after the films were exposed to room light.
CONCLUSIONS: The transmission scanning mode exhibited a strong dependence on film orientation during scanning and a change in optical density resulting from room light exposure, so a constant scanning orientation and minimal exposure to light can reduce uncertainty in the measured dose (23 ± 3%). The angular dependence was analyzed using Jones matrices and optical properties of EBT2 film were obtained using an ellipsometer and an UV/visible spectrometer. The reflection scanning mode has relatively good stability with respect to room light and film orientation on a scanner, although the large standard deviation of dose is a disadvantage in measurements of absolute dose. Reflection scanning mode can offer a potential advantage for film dosimetry in radiotherapy, although transmission scanning mode is still recommended for dosimetry as it provides better uncertainty results.