A comprehensive review of inflammatory bowel disease focusing on surgical management
Seung Hyuk Baik ; Won Ho Kim
Journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology, Vol.28(3) : 121~131, 2012
Journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology
The two main diseases of inflammatory bowel disease are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The pathogenesis of inflammatory disease is that abnormal intestinal inflammations occur in genetically susceptible individuals according to various environmental factors. The consequent process results in inflammatory bowel disease. Medical treatment consists of the induction of remission in the acute phase of the disease and the maintenance of remission. Patients with Crohn's disease finally need surgical treatment in 70% of the cases. The main surgical options for Crohn's disease are divided into two surgical procedures. The first is strictureplasty, which can prevent short bowel syndrome. The second is resection of the involved intestinal segment. Simultaneous medico-surgical treatment can be a good treatment strategy. Ulcerative colitis is a diffuse nonspecific inflammatory disease that involves the colon and the rectum. Patients with ulcerative colitis need surgical treatment in 30% of the cases despite proper medical treatment. The reasons for surgical treatment are various, from life-threatening complications to growth retardation. The total proctocolectomy (TPC) with an ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the most common procedure for the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis. Medical treatment for ulcerative colitis after a TPC with an IPAA is usually not necessary.