Enhancement of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions of red ginseng extract by fermentation
Hyun-Joo Jung ; Hojin Choi ; Chang-Jin Lim ; Eun-Hee Park ; Jong Eun Lee ; Bin Kwon ; Hacksoo Kim ; Daehyun Shin ; Hye-Won Lim
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol.64(5) : 756~762, 2012
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to compare some pharmacological properties of red ginseng extract (RG) and fermented red ginseng extract (FRG).
METHODS: Antinociceptive activity was analysed using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction response. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the air pouch, and analysed through the measurement of nitrite content in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells. Anti-angiogenic activity was determined using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay.
KEY FINDINGS: In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity of FRG was stronger than that of RG in two animal models, vascular permeability and air-pouch models. In the vascular permeability model, the doses of RG and FRG required for half-maximal inhibition (IC50) were 181 and 59mg/kg, respectively. FRG exhibited significantly stronger antinociceptive activity than RG. In the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction response, the IC50 values of RG and FRG were 153 and 27mg/kg, respectively. Although both RG and FRG were able to suppress production of nitric oxide in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, the suppressive activity of FRG appeared to be stronger than that of RG. However, RG and FRG showed similar anti-angiogenic activity.
CONCLUSIONS: FRG possesses enhanced anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity but similar anti-angiogenic activity than RG.