Mycobacterium paratuberculosis CobT activates dendritic cells via engagement of Toll-like receptor 4 resulting in Th1 cell expansion
Eui-Hong Byun ; Woo Sik Kim ; Sung Jae Shin ; Gang Min Hur ; Tiejun Zhang ; Keehoon Lee ; Sang-Nae Cho ; Hwa-Jung Kim ; Han-Gyu Choi ; Choul-Jae Won ; Jong-Seok Kim
Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol.287(46) : 38609~38624, 2012
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne disease in animals and MAP involvement in human Crohn disease has been recently emphasized. Evidence from M. tuberculosis studies suggests mycobacterial proteins activate dendritic cells (DCs) via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, eventually determining the fate of immune responses. Here, we investigated whether MAP CobT contributes to the development of T cell immunity through the activation of DCs. MAP CobT recognizes TLR4, and induces DC maturation and activation via the MyD88 and TRIF signaling cascades, which are followed by MAP kinases and NF-κB. We further found that MAP CobT-treated DCs activated naive T cells, effectively polarized CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to secrete IFN-γ and IL-2, but not IL-4 and IL-10, and induced T cell proliferation. These data indicate that MAP CobT contributes to T helper (Th) 1 polarization of the immune response. MAP CobT-treated DCs specifically induced the expansion of CD4(+)/CD8(+)CD44(high)CD62L(low) memory T cells in the mesenteric lymph node of MAP-infected mice in a TLR4-dependent manner. Our results indicate that MAP CobT is a novel DC maturation-inducing antigen that drives Th1 polarized-naive/memory T cell expansion in a TLR4-dependent cascade, suggesting that MAP CobT potentially links innate and adaptive immunity against MAP.