Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and its electrocardiographs (ECG): tips and tricks.
Nacif, Marcelo Souto ; Zavodni, Anna ; Lima, Joao AC ; Choi, Eui-Young ; Kawel, Nadine
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, Vol.28(6) : 1465~1475, 2012
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
All cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques aim to create still depictions of a dynamic and ever-adapting organ. Most CMR methods rely on cardiac gating to capture information during fleeting periods of relative cardiac quiescence, at end diastole or end systole, or to acquire partial images throughout the cardiac cycle and average these signals over several heart beats. Since the inception of clinical CMR in the early 1980s, priority has been given to improving methods for image gating. The aim of this work is to provide a basic understanding of the ECG acquisition, demonstrate common ECG-related artifacts and to provide practical methods for overcoming these issues. Meticulous ECG preparation is essential for optimal CMR acquisition and these techniques must be adaptable to the individual patient.