Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common cancer in Mongolia. We aimed to investigate the clinical features, therapeutic modalities, overall survival and prognostic factors for Mongolian patients with HCC.
Method: One hundred ninety-five patients with HCC were consecutively enroled in our study.
Results: The mean age was 61.7 years. The most common etiology for HCC was HCV infection (n = 89, 45.6%), followed by HBV infection (n = 67, 34.4%). The mean tumor diameter was 6.0 ± 2.6 cm. Only 29 (14.9%) patients had a single lesion, while 39 (20.2%) had >3 lesions. Extrahepatic metastasis to lung (n = 23), bone (n = 10) and lymph node (n = 3) were detected in 36 (18.5%) patients. Most patients had advanced HCC—88 (45.1%) in stage III and 57 (29.2%) in stage IV. Surgical resection was performed in 27 (13.8%) patients, RFA in 23 (11.8%) and TACE in 107 (54.9%). When all the patients were categorized as ‘treated’ (n = 156) and ‘not treated’ (n = 39), the 3-year survival was significantly lower in the ‘not treated’ group than in the ‘treated’ group (11 vs. 0%, P < 0.001). Tumor diameter (<3 cm vs. ≥3 cm), extrahepatic metastasis, TNM stage (I/II vs. III/IV) and treatment (or supportive care) were selected as independent predictors for survival.
Conclusions: High proportion of patients with HCC in Mongolia is diagnosed at an advanced stage and survival of these patients is lower compared to other countries. A surveillance system and referral policy for high-risk groups should be urgently established and implemented in Mongolia.