BACKGROUND: We compared the diagnostic utilities of CYFRA 21-1, nuclear matrix protein-22 (NMP22), urinary bladder cancer antigen (UBC), and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) for detecting urinary bladder cancer.
METHODS: We assayed CYFRA 21-1, NMP22, UBC and FDP from urine samples for 250 subjects. Among them, 54 were diagnosed as bladder cancer, and the remaining 196, which consisted of healthy individuals and patients with hematuria, inflammation/infection, or benign prostate hyperplasia, were assigned to the control group.
RESULTS: Urinary levels of all 4 markers were higher in the bladder cancer group than the control group. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs) of CYFRA 21-1, NMP22, UBC and FDP, corrected with urine creatinine concentrations, were 0.90, 0.89, 0.80 and 0.77, respectively, for discriminating bladder cancer from controls. The ROC-AUCs for the combinations of the markers were not significantly higher than those with CYFRA 21-1 or NMP22. NMP22 was the only independent variable for predicting bladder cancer among the four markers in the multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: All 4 tumor biomarkers exhibited diagnostic utility for predicting bladder cancer. Among them, CYFRA 21-1 and NMP22 were the most effective at predicting bladder cancer.