We investigated the functional effects of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) on c-Myc transcriptional complexes in renal cell carcinoma. miR-34a down-regulated expression of multiple oncogenes including c-Myc by targeting its 3′ untranslated region, which was revealed by luciferase reporter assays. miR-34a was also found to repress RhoA expression by suppressing the c-Myc–Skp2–Miz1 transcriptional complex that activates RhoA. Overexpression of c-Myc reversed miR-34a suppression of RhoA expression and inhibition of cell invasion, suggesting that miR-34a inhibits invasion by suppressing RhoA through c-Myc. miR-34a was also found to repress the c-Myc–P-TEFb transcription elongation complex, indicating one of the mechanisms by which miR-34a has profound effects on cellular functions. Our results demonstrate that miR-34a suppresses assembly and function of the c-Myc complex that activates or elongates transcription, indicating a novel role of miR-34a in the regulation of transcription by c-Myc.